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Bergenia ciliata(Haw.) Sternb.

Botanical Name: Bergenia ciliata(Haw.) Sternb.
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Saxifragales
Family: Saxifragaceae
Genus: Bergenia
Local Name: Bakhan baid
Sindhi Name: Shaar
English Name: Velvet leaf
Parts Used: Whole plant

Description
Bergenia ciliata(Haw.) Sternb. is an evergreen perennial herb that grows up to 35 cm tall. Leaves are arranged in a spreading manner, glabrous or hirsute, and sub-orbicular to orbicular or broadly obovate. Petiole is about 1-2 cm long, glabrous, or hirsute. Inflorescence, a one sided raceme or corymbose. Seeds are brown in color, elongated, and minutely tuberculate. Petals are unguiculate, and limb orbicular1.
Occurrence
B.ciliatais native to Central Asia, from Afghanistan to China and the Himalayan region including Pakistan. The plant is found in mansehra, swat, etc, from 2,300 to 4,200 metres.
Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases
Oral extract, prepared withBergenia ciliata(Haw.) Sternb. (Velvet leaf),Anethum sowaRoxb. (Dill), Origanum vulgareL. (Oregano), Rosa indicaL. (Rose) petals in dried form, Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce. (Fennel),Cassia augustifoliaVahl. (Indian senna)leaves, and crystal sugar areused for the treatment of infertility, and fibroids uterus in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
ChemicalConstituents
B. ciliatacontains tannic acid, gallic acid, glucose, mucilage, wax, metarbin, albumen, and mineral salts2. Root contains β-sitosterol, bergenin, and gallolyted leucoanthocyanidin-4-(2-galloyl) glucoside. Leaves contain flavonols, such as quercetin, kaempferol, afzelin, arbutin derivative, and β-sitosterol3. Gallolyted leucoanthocyanidin-4-(2-galloyl) glucoside is also found in rhizome2.

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies
B. ciliatais considered to be an important herb used for dissolvingthe kidney and bladder stones4. Juice and powder of the whole plant is used for treating urinary disorders.Juice of the rhizome is given in cases of hemorrhoids, and asthma5.
The plant extracts showed various biological activities. It included antiulcer, antioxidant, antibacterial, hypoglycemic, antineoplastic, antifungal, antibacterial6, antitussive, and anti-inflammatory activities7. Bergenin, one of the major constituents of the plant exhibits hepatotoxic, antiviral,and arthritic activities8.
REFERENCES
1. Ghazanfar, S. (1971). Flora of Pakistan, 108, 4, National Herbarium, Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad.
2. Ruby, K. M. (2012).Polypharmacological Activities of Bergenia Species.International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research,13(1), 100-107.
3. Kapoor, L .D. (1990). Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants, p.75, CRC Press, USA.
4. Sharma, R. (2003). Medicinal Plants of India- An Encyclopedia, p. 35, Daya Publishing House, Delhi, India.
5. Manandhar, N. P. (2002). Plants and People of Nepal, p. 110, Portland, Timber Press, Oregon, U.S.A.
6. Pokhrel, P., Parajuli, R. R., Tiwari, A. K., and Banerjee, J. (2014). AShort Glimpse on Promising Pharmacological Effects of Begenia ciliata.Journal of Applied Pharmacology Research, XI(1), 1–6.
7. http://globalresearchonline.net/journalcontents/v15-2/04.pdf
8. Rastogi, S., and Rawat, A. K. S. (2008). A Comprehensive Review on Bergenin, A Potential Hepatoprotective and Anti-oxidant Phytoconstituent. Herbia Polonica, 54(2), 66-79.

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