Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.

Botanical Name:                    Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.

Kingdom:                              Plantae1

Order:                                     Myrtales

Family:                                   Cambretaceae

Genus:                                   Terminalia

Local Name:                         Bari har

Sindhi Name:                       Wadi harir

English Name:                     Belliric muroblan

Parts Used:                           Fruits

Description:

Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. is a tall tree with ashy bark. Leaves are alternate or fascicled at the end of branches and alternate at both ends. Spikes are axillary and loosely arranged, with pubescent floral axis. Flowers are greenish yellow in color. Fruits are obovoid and covered with minute pale pubescence1.

 

Occurrence:

  1. bellirica is distributed to Ceylon, Myanmar, India, China, Siam, Malayan peninsula, and Pakistan.

 

Constituents:

Important chemical compounds from the fruits of T. bellirica are R-sitosterol, gallic acid, ethyle gallate, galloyl glucose, belleric acid, and chebulagic acid8. Glucoside (bellericanin), gallo-tannic acid, lignans (termilignan and thanni lignan), anolignan B10, tannins, ellargic acid, phenyllemblin, and rhamnose were also isolated of this plant7.

2

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies:

 

Fruit oil of T. bellirica is applied on hair and rheumatic swelling. Fruit pulp and honey mixed tohether and used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Plant is used as a purgative2,3,5. It has expectorant and laxative2. Fully ripe fruit is used in sore throat, asthma2, diarrhea3,4,5, dyspepsia, cough, upper respiratory tract infection5, and colic6.

Fruit of T. bellirica possessed anticholinergic and Ca (++) antagonist effects6. Other reported pharmacological activities are antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, antidiabetic, analgesic, immumomodulatory, antihypertensive, antisolmonella, hepatoprotective, antispasmodic, and bronchodilatory7.

 

References:

  1. Flora of Pakistan: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=200014745.
  2. http://www.microsoft.com/uk/windows/products/winfamily/ie/customizelinks.mspx.

Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst

Botanical Name:                  Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst.1

Kingdom:                              Plantaea

Order:                                     Caryophyllales

Family:                                   Tamaricaceae

Genus:                                   Tamarix

Local Name:                         Athel tamarisk, Farash, Lal-jhav, Raktajhav

Sindhi Name:                       Sakar

English Name:                     Salt cedar

Part Used:                             Whole plant

Description:

Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst. is a trees or tall shrub that grows up to 13 m high. Bark is reddish brown to grey in color. Leaves are vaginate, abruptly mucronate, and hoary. Flowers are bisexual, subsessile, and pinkish white color. Bracts are vaginate, ovate, acuminate, and broad. Ovary is conical while capsules are pyramidal, rounded at the tip, and broad1.

 

Occurrence:

  1. aphylla occurs in Western Asia to North East Africa. In Pakistan, it is distributed throughout the drier part, Rawalpindi, Attock, North Baluchistan, Sibi, Lasbella, Hub River, Kharan, Karachi, Kutch, and Indus Delta.

 

Constituents:

Ellagitannins, phenolic acids, flavonoid glycosides, brevifolin, carboxylic acid, myricadiol, isomyricadiol, and aphyllin were some of the major constituents extracted from different parts of the plant7.

2

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies:

Flowers of T. aphylla are good source of honey2. Bark is used against eczema and other skin diseases3. Pulp is a refrigerant, carminative, and laxative2. Aerial parts are used as an gargle and astringent3,4  while bark powder is aphrodisiac5. It is tradiationally used for jaundice6. Boiled leaves are used for rheumatism, wounds, and abscesses6. T. aphylla leaf extract possessed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing activities8.

References:

  1. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=200014298
  2. Kasyapa, S. K., and Chand, S. R. (1992). The Useful Plants of India, Ambasta S.S.P, p 619, National Institute of Science Communication, New Delhi, India.
  3. Pullaiah, T. (2006). Encyclopaedia of World Medicinal Plants, p. 1906, Regency publications, New Delhi, India.
  4. Khare, C. P. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants, p.644, Springer Science Publishers, New York, USA.
  5. Kirtikar, K. R., and Basu, B. D. (2005). Indian Medicinal Plants, 138-139, Basu S. N, Indian Press, Allahbad, India.
  6. Sarfaraz, K. M., Fazal-Ur-Rehman, Mir, A. K., Mushtaq, A., Muhammad, Z., and Said, G. (2011). Medicinal Folk Recipes used as Traditional Phytotherapies. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 43(3) p. 1453-1462.
  7. Aklaq, M., and Muhammad, A. (2011). New Phenolic Acids from Galls of Tamarix aphylla (L.) H. International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 2(4), 222-225.

http://www.oalib.com/paper/2740660#.VGBKTzSUdlw

Symplocos racemosa Roxb

Botanical Name:                  Symplocos racemosa Roxb.1

Kingdom:                              Plantae    

Order:                                     Ericales

Family:                                   Symplocaceae

Genus:                                   Symplocos

Local Name:                         Lodh, Pathani lodh

Sindhi Name:                       Lodh

English Name:                     Lodh tree, Symplocos bark

Parts Used:                           Bark

Description:

Symplocos racemosa Roxb. is a small tree. Leaves are long, dark green in color, and pointed at the tip with toothed margins. Flowers are small and white or pale yellow in color. Fruits are purplish black in color1.

 

Occurrence:

  1. racemosa is distributed in North and east India (Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Kerala, Andaman, and Nicobar Islands), Bangladesh, Myanmar, China, Thailand, Vietnam, Nepal, and Pakistan.

 

Constituents:

A wide range of bioactive compounds including betulinic, acetyloleanolic, ellagic acids2, symposide, symplocososide, β-sito-glycoside, symploveroside, benzoylsalireposide, and salireposide etc. were isolated from this plant10. Besides, monomethyl pelargonidin glucosides (I and II), loturine, colloturine, loturidine, phytosterol, and 3-monoglucofuranoside of 7-O-methyl leucopelargonidin were isolated from the bark3.

22

 

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies:

Decoction of S. racemosa bark is used as gargle in bleeding gums. Plaster, prepared from its bark, is used in excessive bleeding during menstruation and on wounds4. A paste from wood is applied on boils for promoting suppuration and pus discharge. Bark decoction is also used for giving firmness to spony and bleeding gum5.

  1. racemosa is reported for its antimicrobial, antidiarrhoeal, spasmogenic, heart depressant, and blood pressure depressant activities2. Ethanol extracts ofSymplocos racemosa bark are responsible for antiacne, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective activities. Salireposide and benzoylsalireposide shows antioxidant activity3.

 

References:

  1. http://green-source.blogspot.com/2008/06/symplocos-racemosa-lodh.html.
  2. http://herbalnet.healthrepository.org/bitstream/123456789/2474/15/mpuas_vol.5_pg.164-170.pdf
  3. Hanumant, U., and Bhusnar, H. (2014). Phytopharmacological profile of Symplocos racemosa: A review. Pharmacologia, 5(2), 76-83.
  4. Pullaih, T. (2006). Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants, 4, 1885, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.

5.         Dhiman, A. K. (2006). Ayurvedic Drug Plants, 238. Daya Publishing House, Delhi, India

Shorea robusta Roth

Botanical Name:                    Shorea robusta Roth.1

Kingdom:                              Plantae 

Order:                                     Malvales

Family:                                   Dipterocarpaceae

Genus:                                   Shorea

Local Name:                         Raal

Sindhi Name:                       Sabzama

English Name:                     Sal

Parts Used:                           All parts

Description:

Shorea robusta Roth. is moderate to slow growing tree. Leaves are long and broad. Leaves are evergreen in winter season, shedding most of the leaves in between February to April, leafing out again in April and May1.

Occurrence:

  1. robusta tree is native to Pakistan, India, south Himalaya, Myanmar, east Nepal, and Bangladesh.

 

Constituents:

  1. robusta contains ursolic acid, α-amyrenone, and α and β-amyrin. Bark contains ursonic acid, oleanane, and shoreaphenol. Seed contains hopeaphenol, leucoanthocyanidin, and 3,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone7-Oα-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(14)-α-l-rhamnonopyrano-syl(16)-β-d-glucopyranoside, while heartwood yielded germacrene-D. β-Amyrin, friedelin, β-sitosterol, α-pheophytin, and dihydroxyisoflavone were reported from mature leaves2.

2

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies:

Essential oil of S. robusta is employed in skin diseases and ear trouble. Fruit paste is given in diaorrhea3,5. Seed oil is used for skin diseases and scabies3,4. Warm leaf is applied on swollen parts of the body for quick effect4.  Resin is used against gonorrhea and weak digestion. Bark decoction is also used in diarrhoea5.

Crude extracts of S. robusta shows a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, wound healing, antinociceptive, antiulcer, antipyretic, and analgesic activities2.

References:

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shorea_robusta
  2. Soni, R. K., Dixit, V., and Irchhaiya, R. (2013). A Review Update on Shorea robusta Gaertn F. (Sal). Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 3(6), 127-132.
  3. Pullaiah, T. (2006). Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants, p. 1792, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.
  4. Manandhar, N. P. (2002). Plants and People of Nepal, 426, Timber press, Portland, Oregon, U.S.A.
  5. Dhiman, A. K. (2006). Ayurvedic Drug Plants, 325. Daya Publishing House, Delhi, India.

Saussurea lappa DC

Botanical Name:                  Saussurea lappa DC.

Kingdom:                              Plantae 1

Order:                                     Asterales

Family:                                   Asteraceae

Genus:                                   Saussurea

Local Name:                         Koth

Sindhi Name:                       Malib

English Name:                     Costus, Kut Root

Parts Used:                           Roots

Description:

Saussurea lappa DC. is a perennial herbaceous plant. Leaves are produced in dense basal rosette, and then spirally up the flowering stem. Flowers  is often surrounded by densely white to purple in color with woolly hairs. Individual florets are also white to purple1.

 

Occurrence:

  1. lappa is native to cooltemperateand arctic regions of Asia, Europe, North America, Himalayas, and Central Asia. In Pakistan, it is found in Forest, Kaghan, and Azad Kashmir.

Constituents:

Costunolide, dehydrocostus lactone, cynaropicrin, lappadilactone, germacrenes and saussureal were isolated from fresh roots of S. lappa. Saussuramines A, B, C, D, and E, betulinic acid, betulinic acid methyl ester, mokko lactone, α-amorphenic acid, sulfocostunolide A, sulfocostunolide B, sulfonic acid, and guainolides, such as isodehydrocostus lactone, and isozaluzanin C were also reported from this plant4.

2

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies:

Dried root powder of S. lappa is used for washing hair. Root powder is also used as ointment for healing wounds, severe ulceration, and reducing tumor. In Chinese medicine, it is used internally for gastric complaints, flatulence, loss of appetite, and asthma2. Root powder is mixed with mustard oil and used on scalp in prurigo. Root powder and tincture is used as expectorant in bronchial asthma. Root infusion with little cardamom is given in asthma, cough, fever, and dyspepsia3.

  1. lappa has been screened for various pharmacological activities and proved to be active as antiangiogenic, antiarthritic, anticonvulsant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antiviral, and hepatoprotective activities4.

 

References:

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saussurea.
  1. Pullaiah, T. (2006). Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants, 4, p. 1747-1748, Regency Publisher, New Delhi, India.
  1. Dhiman, A. K. (2006). Ayurvedic Drug Plants, 224. Daya Publishing House, Delhi, India.
  2. Madhuri, K., Elango, K., and Ponnusankar, S. (2012). Saussurea lappa (Kuth Root): Review of its Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology. Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, 12, 1–

Salvia plebeia R. Brown

Botanical Name:                    Salvia plebeia R. Brown

Kingdom:                              Plantae1

Order:                                     Lamiales

Family:                                   Lamiaceae

Genus:                                   Salvia

Local Name:                         Kamarkas, Sefakus, Salvej

Sindhi Name:                       Kamarkas

English Name:                     Sage weed

Parts Used:                           Leaves and seeds

Description:

Salvia plebeia R. Brown. is a perennial herb, densely covered with simple, and retrorse hair. Sessile glands are present while branches are erect. Leaves have narrow-ovate to narrow-elliptic lamina. Inflorescences are branched with 3-8 flowers per pair of bracts1. Fruits are pear-shaped, long, and brownish in color2.

 

Occurrence:

  1. plebeia grows in open areas of forests, roadsides, and on the margins of rainforests. It is distributed in Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Himalayas (Kashmir to Bhutan), India, China, Japan, Malaysia, and Australia. In Pakistan, it is found in Shikarpur, Kurram, Peshawar, Kohat, Dir, Chitral, Swat, Poonch, and plain to 2000 m.

 

Constituents:

Homoplantaginin, hispidulin3, 6-methoxynaringenin, 6-methoxynaringenin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, nepetin, nepitrin, and 6-hydroxyluteolin4 were isolated from S. plebeia. The plant yields flavones, lignans, diterpenoids, hispidulin-glucoronide, hispidulin-7-O-D-glucoside, 6-methoxy-luteolin-7-glucoside, 2′-hydroxy-5′-methoxybiochanin A, coniferyl aldehyde, carnosol, rosmadial, pectolinarigenin, epirosmanol, caffeic acid, methyl ester, scopoletin, luteolin, and rosmarinic acid3.

2

Description:

Salvia plebeia R. Brown. is a perennial herb, densely covered with simple, and retrorse hair. Sessile glands are present while branches are erect. Leaves have narrow-ovate to narrow-elliptic lamina. Inflorescences are branched with 3-8 flowers per pair of bracts1. Fruits are pear-shaped, long, and brownish in color2.

 

Occurrence:

  1. plebeia grows in open areas of forests, roadsides, and on the margins of rainforests. It is distributed in Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Himalayas (Kashmir to Bhutan), India, China, Japan, Malaysia, and Australia. In Pakistan, it is found in Shikarpur, Kurram, Peshawar, Kohat, Dir, Chitral, Swat, Poonch, and plain to 2000 m.

 

Constituents:

Homoplantaginin, hispidulin3, 6-methoxynaringenin, 6-methoxynaringenin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, nepetin, nepitrin, and 6-hydroxyluteolin4 were isolated from S. plebeia. The plant yields flavones, lignans, diterpenoids, hispidulin-glucoronide, hispidulin-7-O-D-glucoside, 6-methoxy-luteolin-7-glucoside, 2′-hydroxy-5′-methoxybiochanin A, coniferyl aldehyde, carnosol, rosmadial, pectolinarigenin, epirosmanol, caffeic acid, methyl ester, scopoletin, luteolin, and rosmarinic acid3.

Rheum emodi Wall

Botanical Name:                    Rheum emodi Wall.

Kingdom:                              Plantae 1

Order:                                     Caryophyllales

Family:                                   Polygonaceae

Genus:                                   Rheum  

Local Name:                         Rhubab

Sindhi Name:                       Rawand

English Name:                     Himalayan rhubarb

Parts Used:                           Roots

Description:

Rheum emodi Wall. is a perennial and glabrous herb or under shrub. Basal leaves have long petiole, orbicular or broadly-ovate, and 5-7-nerved, while the upper leaves are smaller. Inflorescence is branched and erect with leafy panicle. Flowers are pedicellate and dark purple. Fruits are ovoid-oblong and purple, with wings that are narrower than disk, and notched at both ends1.

 

Occurrence:

  1. emodi is distributed in Pakistan, India and Nepal. In Pakistan, it is distributed in Azad Kashmir, Alpine, and Subalpine Himalayas.

 

Constituents:

Rhein, chrysophanol, aloe-emodin, emodin, physcion (Emodin monomethyl ether), chrysophanein, emodin glycoside, picetannol, resveratrol and their glycosides, oxanthrone, oxanthrone ether (Revandchinone-4), oxanthrone esters (Revandchinone-1 and revandchinone-2), and revandchinone-3 were also isolated from this plant2.

2

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies:

Root powder of R. emodi is used for cleaning teeth3. Root powder is also used externally in indolent and sloughing ulcers for quick healing4. Pills are prepared with root powder of rhubarb and ginger, and employed in bowel complaints. Root is also used against gout rheumatism, epilepsy, and uric acid problems5.

  1. emodi has various pharmacological actions. These include antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immune enhancing6, antiplatelet, and nephroprotective activities2. Alcoholic extract of the rhizome is reported for anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiulcer, antidyslipidemic, and hepatoprotective activities. Rhein, physcion, aloe-emodin, and chrysophanol are the main constituents that exhibited antifungal activity2.

 

References:

  1. Flora of Pakistan: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=242100141
  2. Rehman, H., Begum, W., Anjum, F., and Tabasum, H. (2014). Rheum emodi (Rhubarb): A Fascinating Herb. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 3(2), 89-94.
  3. Pullaih, T. (2006). Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants, 4, 1669-1670, Regency Publications, Delhi, India.
  4. Joshi, S. G. (2002). Medicinal Plants, p. 323, Oxford and IBH Publisher Co. Pvt. ltd, Delhi, India.
  5. Dhiman, A. K. (2006). Ayurvedic Drug Plants, 31, Daya Publications, Delhi, India.
  6. Rokaya, M. B., Munzbergova, Z., Timsina, B., and Bhattarai, K. R. (2012). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 141(3), p. 761-774.

Rhazya stricta Decne

Botanical Name:                 Rhazya stricta Decne.

Kingdom:                              Plantae1

Division:                                Magnoliophyta

Order:                                     Gentianales

Family:                                   Apocynaceae

Genus:                                   Rhazya

Sindhi Name:                     Seenhaar/Shaar

Local Name:                       Sihar

English Name:                   Rhazya

Pasrt Used:                        Leaves, flowers, seeds

Description:

Rhazya stricta Decne. has glabrous and often woody based shrub with dense semi-erect branches. Leaves are alternate, narrowly ovate, and yellowish green. Flowers are arranged in axillary terminal corymbs. Fruits are found as paired follicles, erect, parallel, and semi cylindrical. Tip is attenuate, smooth, and yellowish green. Seeds are compressed, narrowly winged, and brown. Leaves and long thin pods turn brown and brittle1.

 

Occurrence:

  1. stricta is a native poisonous plant in Southern Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia. In Pakistan, it is found in Karachi, Lasbella, Khyber, Malakand, Daragai, Salt Range, Attock, and plains between Indus and Jhelum.

 

Constituents:

Two indole alkaloids, antirhine, geissoschizine, 16-epi-Z-isositsirikine2, isorhamnetin 3-(2,6-dirhamnosylgalactoside)-7- rhamnoside, and 3-(6-dirhamnosylgalactside)-7-rhamnoside were isolated from leaves3. Vallesiachotamine, sewarine, tetrahydrosecamine, and polyneuridine were isolated from its leaves and roots. Alkaloids, such as aspidospermiose, strictibine, 1-carboxymethoxy-b-carboline, akuammidine, rhaziminine, tetrahydrosecamine, isorhazicine, rhazicine, bharhingine, rhazimal, rhazimol, rhazinol, rhazimine, and Nb-methyl strictamine were also reported. Rhazimanine, an indole alkaloid, was isolated from the fruits. Vicadine is present in the legumes2.

2

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies:

  1. stricta is a medicinal plant, traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, inflammation, and helminthiasis4. Leaves are used for the treatment of skin infections. Stem is used for improving eyesight and for the treatment of hepatitis, toothache, and infections5. Juice of leaves is applied externally on skin eruptions, boils, and general debility. It is also used as gargle in sore throat6.
  2. stricta alkaloids are reported for anticancer effect5,6. Tetrahydrosecamine and 16-epi-Z-isositsirikine are reported for antineoplastic activity. Extracts of R. stricta showed immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, hypotriglyceridemia, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, leucopenic, nematicidal, pesticidal, and larvicidal activities3.

References:

  1. http://www.haad.ae/HAAD/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=QScIwe5etg%3D&tabid=791.
  2. Badreldin, H. A., and Ali, A. (2000). Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicity of Rhazya stricta Decne: A Review. Phytotherapy Reseach, 14, 229–234.
  3. Marwat, S. K. (2012). A Review of Phytochemistry, Bioactivities, and Ethnomedicinal Uses of Rhazya stricta (Apocynaceae). African Journal of Microbiology Research, 6(8), 1629-41.
  4. Rasheed, R. A., Bashir, A. K., and Ali, B. H. (1997). Reproductive Toxicology, 11(2/3), 191-199.
  5. http://sindhforests.gov.pk/admin/MediaLibrary/Seenhaar.pdf.
  6. Baquar, S. R. Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Pakistan, Printas Publishers, Karachi, Pakistan.

Prunus amygdalus Batsch

Botanical Name:                  Prunus amygdalus Batsch.1

Kingdom:                              Plantae 

Order:                                     Rosales

Family:                                   Rosaceae

Genus:                                   Prunus

Local Name:                         Badam

Sindhi Name:                       Badami

English Name:                     Almond

Parts Used:                           Fruits

Description:

Prunus amygdalus Batsch. is a small deciduous tree about 4–10 m in height. Young twigs are green at first, becoming purplish when exposed to sunlight. Leaves are long with a serrated margin and a petiole. Flowers are white or pale pink with five petals, produced singly or in pairs. Fruits are mature in autumn1.

 

Occurrence:

  1. amygdalus is native to the Middle East and South Asia.In Pakistan, it is cultivated in most part of country, especially in dry temperature.

 

Constituents:

  1. amygdalus contained vitamin E, vitamin B, proteins, and mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. A variety of phenolic compounds that include flavonols (Isorhamnetin, kaempferol, quercetin, catechin, and epicatechin), flavanones (Naringenin), anthocyanins (Cyanidins and delphinidin), procyanidins, and phenolic acids (Caffeic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and vanillic acid) are also present. The active constituents of almonds are globulins, such as amandine, albumin, and amino acids. Almonds also contain phytosterols2.

2

  1. Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies:

    Oil of P. amygdalus is used in the preparations of different creams, such as nourishing creams, skin creams, and cold creams. Oil is employed in cough, burning sensation, cracked skin, and amentia. Poultice of almond kernels are applied on sore and skin eruptions3. Almonds are valuable in diet for curing peptic ulcers4, vaginitis, pelvic inflammation, annexitis, cervical erosion, peculiar leucorrhea smell, dysmenorrhea, and infertility5. Almond oil contains cleansing agent that is helpful for female vaginal relaxation, inflammation, leucorrhea, and pruritus6. Almond oil is applied for female vaginal constriction, sterilization, and as an anti-inflammatory agent7.

    1. amygdalus are reported for antioxidant, hepatoprotective, immunostimulant, hypolipidaemic, hypoglycaemic, and antiamnesia effects. It is considered to have an aphrodisiac property and an agent for increasing the fertility2.

     

    References:

    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Almond.
    2. Rao, H. J. (2012). Therapeutic Applications of Almonds (Prunus amygdalus ): A Review. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 6(1), 130-135.
    3. Pullaiah, T. (2006).Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants, 4, 1618-1619, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.
    4. Khare, C. P. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 519, Springer Science Publishers, New York, U.S.A.
    5. Su, X. (2010). Faming Zhuanli Shenqing, Patent number: CN 101744872 A 20100623.
    6. Chen, B. (2004). Faming Zhuanli Shenqing, Patent number: CN 1465358 A 20040107, Patent written in Chinese.
    7. Chen, Bi-Cheng. (2005). Taiwan. Patent number: TW 230612 B 20050411, Patent written in Chinese.

Polygonum bistorta L

Botanical Name:                  Polygonum bistorta L.1

Kingdom:                              Plantae

Order:                                     Caryophyllales

Family:                                   Polygonaceae

Genus:                                   Persicaria

Local Name:                         Anjbar

Sindhi Name:                       Anjbar

English Name:                     Bistort/Common Bistor

Part Used:                             Bark and leaves

Description:

Polygonum bistorta L. produces tall stems ending in single terminal racemes. At the end of racemes, long and club-like spikes are present that have pink color flowers. Foliage is normally basal. Leaves are few, oblong- or triangular-ovate in shape, and produced near the end of the flowering stems. Petioles are broadly winged1.

 

Occurrence:

  1. bistorta isdistributed in Europe, Siberia, Iraq, Iran, and Pakistan. In Pakistan, it is found in Kurram agency.

 

Constituents:

Major constituents of P. bistorta are furfural, methyl ester, palmitic acid, 5-methyl furfural, methyl ester, and cosanes (tetracosane to nonacosane). Roots and leaves contain phloroglucinol, gallic acid, and phlobaphene. Methyl anthraquinone, caffeic, chlorogenic, protocatechnic acid, and ascorbic acid were isolated from flower, leaves, and rootstocks. 2, 3’,4’,4,6-pentahydroxy flavones and 2,5’,6-trihydroxy-4,2’-dimethoxy flavones were found in rhizomes. 5-glutinen-3-one (Alnusenone), friedelinol, β-sitosterol, friedelin, 3β–friedelinol, and bistortaside A were isolated from the plant6.

2

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies:

  1. bistorta is mildly sedative, nourishes the blood, and act as a tonic2. It improves liver function and reproductive systems3. It is used for relieving menstrual pains, for the treatment of constipation, and for lowering cholesterol levels3. Liquid extract of the root stocks and their decoction are used as an astringent in diarrhea, perfuse menses, colitis, and gingivitis4. It is used for internal hemorrhages, irritable bowel, diverticulosis, urinary and uterine affection5.

Pharmacologically P. bistorta exerts astringent, haemostatic, antidysenteric, febrifugal, diuretic, expectorant, gastric tonic, antihaematuria, and antiemetic effects. It has antimicrobial, antiarthritic, antidiarrhoeal, antiseptic, antihelminthic, and antimutagenic properties. The alcoholic extract of Polygonum bistorta showed anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, and antioxidant activities6.

 

References:

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persicaria_bistorta
  2. Li, T. S. C. (2000). Medicinal Plants Culture, Utilization and Phytopharmacology, p. 37, CRC press, New York, USA.
  3. Atta, A. (2001). The Ultimate Herb Book, p. 254. Collins and Brown, London.
  4. Pullaiah, T. (2006). Encyclopaedia of World Medicinal Plants, 4, p. 1590, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.
  5. Khare, C. P. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 509, Springer Science Publishers. New York, USA.
  6. Mehar, A., and Tabarak, I. M. (2013). A Review on Polygonum bistorta L. with Reference to its Pharmacology and Phytochemistry. Global Journal of Research on Medicinal Plants and Indigenous Medicine, 2(9), 669–674.