Curcuma longa L.
Botanical name: Curcuma longa L.
Sindhi name: Hedr
Local name: Haldi
English name: Turmeric
Part used: Whole plant
Curcuma longa L. is a perennial plant with roots or tubers oblong-palmate. Leaves are lanceolate and petioled. Flowers are dull yellow and surrounded by bracteolae1. Rhizomes have a brown surface and bright orange or yellow interior flesh2.
- longa is native to tropical South Asia. It is also found in China, India, and Africa. Kasur district of Pakistan is known for large production of turmeric. It is cultivated in plains areas of Pakistan.
Main phytoconstituents of C. longa includes curcumin, desmethoxycurcumin, monodemethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, dihydrocurcumin, and cyclocurcumin. Curcumin comprises curcumin I, curcumin II, and curcumin III3. Presence of tumerones (A and B), curdione, curzerenone, mono- and di-demethoxycurcumin have been reported in the rhizomes. (6S)-2-methyl-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl-3-methyl)-2-hepten-4-one, bisabolane sesquiterpenes, and two calebin derivatives were also isolated from C. longa4.
Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies:
Rhizome is important part of C. longa used for medicinal purpose in the form of powder. Rhizome is first soaked in water, dried in oven, and then crushed into a powder form. Powder is effective against biliary disorders, anorexia, coryza, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorder, rheumatism, and sinusitis5. Powder form of rhizome is used as a medicine in flatulence, jaundice, menstrual difficulties, hematuria, hemorrhage, and colic. It is also used as an ointment for the treatment of various skin diseases, such as acne, wounds, boils, bruises, blistering, ulcers, eczema, insect bites, parasitic infections, herpes zoster, and pemphigus6.
Petroleum ether and aqueous extracts has antifertility effect and act as novel intravaginal contraceptive2. C. longa extract inhibited bacterial and fungal growth6. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts proved to be analgesic7. Turmeric extract are found to have ulcer protective8, hypoglycemic9, cardiovascular protective, anti-inflammatory10 effect. It is effective in pulmonary fibrosis and alveolar macrophage production10.
- Kumar, N., and Sakhya, S. K. (2013). Ethnopharmacological Properties of Curcuma longa: A Review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 4(1), 103-112.
- Gupta, S. K. (2010). Phytochemistry ofCurcuma longa – An Overview. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, 4(1).
- Niazi, J. (2010). Pharmacotherapeutics of Curcuma longa– A Potent Patent. International Journal of Pharma Professional’s Research, 1(1).
- Ammon, H. P., Anazodo, M. I., Safayhi, H., Dhawan, B. N., and Srimal, R. C. (1992). Curcumin: A Potent Inhibitor of Leukotriene B4 Formation in Rat Peritoneal Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils (PMNL). Planta Medica, 58, 226.
- Labban, L. (2014). Medicinal and Pharmacological Properties of Turmeric (Curcuma longa): A Review. International Journal of Pharmacology and Biomedical Sciences, 5(1), 17-23.
- Neha, S. (2009). Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Curcuma longa Rhizome Extracts in Wister Rats. Veterinary World, 2(8).
- Kim, D. C., Kim, S. H., Choi, B. H., Baek, N. I., Kim, D., and Kim, M. J. (2005). Curcuma longa Extract Protects against Gastric Ulcers by Blocking H2 Histamine Receptors. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 28(12), 2220-4.
- Nishiyama, T., Mae, T., Kishida, H., Tsukagawa, M., Mimaki, Y., and Kuroda, M. (2005). Curcuminoids and Sesquiterpenoids in Turmeric (Curcuma longa) Suppress an Increase in Blood Glucose Level in Type 2 Diabetic KK-Ay Mice. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 53(4), 959-63.
- Kumar, A. (2011). A Review on Spice of Life Curcuma longa (Turmeric). International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, 2(4), 371-79.