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Ethnobotanic Practices

Abelmoschus esculentus L.

Botanical Name:       Abelmoschus esculentus L.Abelmoschus esculentus

Kingdom:                     Plantae

Order:                           Malvale

Family:                         Malvaceae

Genus:                          Abelmoschus

Local Name:               Bhindi

Sindhi Name:              Bhindi

English Name:            Okra, Lady’s fingers

Part Used:                    Whole plant

Description

Abelmoschus esculentus L. is an annual or perennialplant, grows up to 2 m tall. Leaves are long and broad. Lobes are 5-7 and palmate. Petals are white to yellow in color with red or purple spots present at the base of each petal. Fruits are long, look like capsules, and contain numerous seeds1.

Occurrence

A. esculentusis cultivated in tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions around the world.Ethiopia, Sudan, northeastern African countries, India, and Pakistan are some of the countries where it grows favorably.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

A. esculentusis placed intravaginally for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

About thirteen flavanoid glycosides, gossypetin, and hibiscetin glucosides have been extracted from petals. Fresh fruits contain pectin and mucilage. D-Galactose, L-rhamnose, and D-dalacturonic acid are also isolated from the mucilage of the fruit. Fresh fruits contain oxalic acid, protein, carbohydrates, fat, minerals, vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, niacin, and flavonoids. Essential oil in the plant include are aliphatic alchohols, cyclohexanol, p-tolualdehyde, α-terpenylacetate, and citral whereas nonvolatile neutral part contains β-sitosterol and its 3β-galactoside2.

Chemical Structure:

Abelmoschus esculentus L. st.

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

A. esculentusis used for the treatment of asthma.It also normalizes blood sugar and cholesterol levels2.Fresh seedless tender fruit with candy sugar isused as a medicine for the treatment of leucorrhea, spermatorrhea, functional impotency, premature ejaculation, diabetes, constipation, and burning in the eyes3.Mucilage from seeds and fruit are used in gonorrhea4.Seeds act as antiseptic, stimulant, stomachic, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac, and has cooling effect5.Seeds are also useful in the treatment of urinary discharges, strangury, diarrhea, and blood disorders6.Decoction of immature fruits is used as a diuretic6.Fruitsareused as mucilaginous food additive against gastric inflammatorydiseases7.

Peel and seed powder of the plant are reported for antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities2. Acute toxicity studies have shown thatmethanolic extract ofA. esculentusfruits and seeds are safe to use up to 1000 mg/kg dosage. Methanolic extracts of fruits and seeds exhibit analgesic, antiinflammatory, antidiarrhoreal, CNS depressant, and gastrointestinal motility activities8. The fresh and lyophilized extracts are antibacterial in nature9.

REFERENCES

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Okra.
  2. Sabitha, V., Ramachandran, S., Naveen, K. R., and Panneerselvam, K. (2011).Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Potential of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. Journal Pharmacolgy and Bioallied Science, 3(3), 397–402.
  3. Pullaiah, T. (2006). Encyclopaedia of World Medicinal Plants,1, 11-12, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.
  4. Baquar, S. R. (1989). Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Pakistan, p. 1, Printas, Karachi, Pakistan.
  5. Bhattacharjee, S.K., and De, L.C. (2006). Medicinal Herbs and Flowers Plants, p. 10, Mrs. Jain. S., Aavishkar Publishers, Jaipur, India.
  6. http://fincomindia.nic.in/writereaddata/html_en_files/arunachal/book2.pdf.
  7. Lengsfeld, C., Titgemeyer, F., Faller, G., and Hensel, A. (2004).Glycosylated Compounds from Okra Inhibit Adhesion of Helicobacterpylori to Human Gastric Mucosa.Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry,52, 1495-1503.
  8. Shammi, S. J., Islam, R., Majumder, R., and Alam, B. (2014). Comparative Pharmacological Studies of Abelmoschuse sculentus Fruits and Seeds, 8(1), 98–106.
  9. Rout, O. P., Acharya, R., and Mishra, S. K. (2012). Oleogum resin Guggulu: A review of the medicinal evidence for its therapeutic properties. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy, 3(1), 15–21.

Acacia nilotica L. Willd. ex Delile

Acacia nilotica L. Willd. ex Delile

Botanical Name:    Acacia nilotica L. Willd. ex                                   Delile

Kingdom:               Plantae

Order:                    Fabales

Family:                  Fabaceae

Genus:                   Acacia

Local Name:         Babul

Sindhi Name:        Babur

English Name:      Gum Arabica, Kikar

Part Used:            Inflorescence and pods

 Description

Acacia nilotica L. Willd. ex Delile occurs as a tree, 1.2-18 m in height, It is variable in shape with spreading branches forming a dense flat or rounded crown; bark on trunk is rough and fissured, blackish grey or brown in color. Leaves are bi-pinnate with 7-25 pairs of leaflets, often with 1-2 petiolar glands. Flowers are bright yellow with globular heads, borne on 2-3 cm long peduncles,either in axillary pattern or in whorls. Fruits are variable, indehiscent, straight or curved, glabrous to velvety and long. Seeds are blackish brown in color with smooth texture1.

Occurrence

A. nilotica is native to Africa and Pak-Indian subcontinent. In Pakistan, it is widely distributed in Lasbella (Balochistan), Karachi, Indus delta, and Kutch (Sindh).

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Bark of Acacia nilotica L. Willd. ex Delile (Kikar) is soaked for few hours and the extract is taken orally from third day of menstruation in Districts Jamshoro and Kashmore (Sindh). This extract is also used orally for inducing abortion in the morning for 5-6 days as well as for the treatment of menorrhagia and polymenorrhia in District Kashmore (Sindh). This extract is used for ablution, and for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory diseases thrice a day for 3 days in District Kashmore (Sindh). This extract is taken orally for the treatment of menorrhagia in District Khairpur (Sindh). The extract is used as vaginal douche against sexual transmitted diseases,leucorrhea and vaginal pruritus in District Khairpur (Sindh). The remedy is used orally for dysmenorrhea twice a day for 2-3 days in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Polymenorrhea and Menorrhagia

Bark of A. nilotica are soaked in water for few hours and then two table spoons of butter oil, and 2-3 Elettaria cardamomum Maton.(Green cardamom) are added in it. It is then boiled and used this water orally for the treatment of polymenorrhea and menorrhagia in District Kamber (Sindh).

Menorrhagia

Some flowers of A. nilotica, bark of Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate), and 2 tablespoons sugar are ground together to obtainpowder, taken orallyone table spoon of the powder twice a day for 4-5 days regularly for the treatment of menorrhagiain District Kamber (Sindh).

Menorrhagia and Dysmenorrhea

Powder of A. nilotica inflorescence is consumed orally with some water upto three days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia in District Thatta (Sindh).

Improvement of Ladies Health after Childbirth

Powder of Prunus amygdalusBatsch. (Almond) and Pistacia vera L. (Pistachio) are fried with Triticum aestivum L. (Wheat) flour, butter oil, and A. nilotica gum. It is taken orally with cow milk for improving women health after childbirth in District Thatta (Sindh).

Polymenorrhea

Bark of A. nilotica, bark of Syzygium cuminiSkeel. (Jambul), and crystal sugar are mashed, and boiled in some water. This water is taken orally for polymenorrhea in District Ghotki (Sindh).

Amennorhea

  1. nilotica, Foeniculum vulgarevar. dulce. (Fennel), and slug of Mentha piperitaL. (Peppermint) are mashed into fine powder, used 1 tablespoon orally twice a day for 5-6 days for the treatment of amenorrhea in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  2. Bark of Acacia nilotica (Kikar) is soaked in water overnight. In the morning a small piece of jaggery is added in it, and boiled for half an hour. It is taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 3-4 days. This remedy is also advised for the treatment of infertility.

Infertility and Amenorrhea

Bark of A. nilotica are boiled in water and taken orally for the treatment of infertility in Districts Ghotki and Jacobabad (Sindh). This remedy is also used orally for the treatment of amenorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Infertility

  1. Some flowers of A. nilotica, 3-4 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), 2-3 jaggery, and butter oil are boiled in water. It is consumed orally for the treatment of infertility for 2-3 months in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  2. Fresh flowers of A. nilotica are ground and mixed with a cup of water. This extract is taken orally for the first three days of period for the treatment of infertility in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  3. A. nilotica and seeds of ajmoon* are boiled in a glass of water.It is taken orally for 2 months during menstruation for the treatment of infertility in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  4. Ground leaves of Acacia nilotica (Kikar) is advised to take orally with water for 5 days.

Strengthening of Uterus

Equal quantities of Cuminum cyminum L. (Cumin), Areca catechu L. (Betel nut), Quercus infectoria Olivier.(Gall oak), flower of A. nilotica, crystal sugar, and 10-12 flowers of mustard are mixed in 2 tablespoons butter oil, and then boiled in 2 glass of water. The drink is consumed orally for strengthening of uterus in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)

  1. Ground Punica granatum (Pomegranate), Areca catechu (Betel nut), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), bark of A. nilotica, Triticum aestivum (Wheat), 2 tablespoon of butter oil, crystal sugar, and some leaves of Lallemantia royleanaBenth. (Black psyllium) in equal quantities, and mixed with butter. It is boiled in 2 glass of water till 1 glass remained, and taken orally in the morning in empty stomach for 3 days for the treatment of sexually transmitted disease (STD) in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  2. 2-3 drops of dettol is added in decoction of A. nilotica bark. It is used for ablution for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases(STD) District Kashmore (Sindh).
  3. ½ kg of barks of A. nilotica and 60gTerminalia chebulaRetz.(Black myrobalau) are boiled in some water until it become soft, and then mashed to make paste. Vaginal suppositories are prepared and placed intra-veginally for 7 days at nightfor the treatment of sexual transmitted diseases (STD) in District Shahdadkot (Sindh).

Conceiving Male Child and Infertility

  1. Powder of A. nilotica flower is soaked in 250mL water and sweetened it with sugar, and the extract is taken orally from third day of menstruation in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
  2. Salvadora persica (Miswak), Bark of A. nilotica, Trachyspermum ammi L. (Carom), jaggery, and butter are ground together, and boiled in some water. This water is taken orally for conceiving male child in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Menorrhagia

  1. Decoction of A. nilotica bark is used for kneading wheat flour. This flour is then used to make unleavened bread / porridge and taken orally for 2-3 days for the treatment of menorrhagia in District Jamshoro (Sindh) and District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).
  2. Flowers of A. nilotica are taken orally for the treatment of menorrhagia and infertility in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).
  3. Flowers of Acacia nilotica (Kikar), crystal sugar, and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom)are crushed separately, and the powdered forms are mixed together to prepare an oral remedy.

Scanty Menses and Retroverted Uterus

Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), bark of A. nilotica, Trachyspermum ammi (Carom), Withania coagulansDunal. (Vegetable rennet), Anethum sowaRoxb. (Dill), and jaggery are soaked in equal quantities in water, and boiled after few hours. Small amount of clarified butter and wheat flour are also added in it. This water is used orally in the morning with empty stomach for 3 days for the treatment of scanty menses in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Vaginal Pruritus

Fresh gum resins of A. nilotica are soaked overnight and then boiled. This water is used as vaginal douche for the treatment of vaginal pruritus in District Mirpurkhas (Sindh).

Backache during Menstruation

Ground Apium graveolensL. (Celery), Embelia ribes Burm. f.(False black pepper), and A. nilotica to obtain a paste, and used orally twice a day for 4-5 day for reducing backache during menstruation in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).

Infertility and Menorrhagia

Some flowers of A. nilotica, 3-4 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), candy sugar, and crystal sugar are boiled in water.This water is consumed orally for the treatment of infertility and menorrhagia in District Shikarpur (Sindh).

Lactation

  1. Rub is prepared by frying A. niloticaandsugar in butter oil, and consumed 5-6 tablespoon orally for 3 days for improving lactation in District Umerkot (Sindh).
  2. Papaver somniferum L. (Opium), Symplocos recemosaRoxb. (Lodh), dried Cocus nuciferaL. (Coconut), A. nilotica, and Coriandrum sativumL. (Coriander) seeds are fried in butter oil.It is taken orally twice a day for week for improving lactation in District Umerkot (Sindh).
  3. Rub is prepared by frying Cocus nucifera (Coconut), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), A. nilotica, Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) seeds, and sugar in butter oil.It is taken orally once a day for 4-5 days for improving lactation in District Umerkot (Sindh).
  4. Rub is prepared by frying Triticum aestivum (Wheat) in butter fat. It is then mixed with ground Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Acacia nilotica (Kikar) gum, aryo*, crystal sugar, Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), and Piper nigrum L. (Black pepper). It is taken orally once a day for a month.

Sexually Transmitted Diseasesand Vaginal Itching

Soaked A. nilotica latex are boiled in some water. Decoction is used to take a bath for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and vaginal itching in District Umerkot (Sindh).

Leucorrhea

Symplocos racemosa (Lodh), Salvia plebeia R. Brown.(Sage weed), Areca catechu (Betel nut), soap stone, Trapa bispinosa Roxb. (Water chestnut), and A. nilotica are ground to make tablets.It isadvised to take orally one tablet per day for 2 weeks for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Tando Adam (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

Alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, amino acids, steroids, and terpenoids are the main constituents of various parts of A. nilotica. The leaf extracts contained apigenin, 6-8-bis-D-glucoside, rutin, and digestive protein, whereas the root extract was rich in alkaloids and glycosides2.Other phytochemicals included fixed oils, fats, and phenolic compounds, such as flavanoids3.A gum, arabin, is the chief constituent of plant4.

Phytochemicals in the flowers included stearic acid, kaempferol-3-glucoside, isoquercitrin, leucocyanidin, and other phenolic compounds5. The stem bark contained terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, and glycosides6.Polyphenolics,such as condensed tannin, phlobatannin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, pyrocatechol, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin-7-gallate, and (-)-epigallocatechin-5,7-digallate have been isolated from this plant6.

Seeds contained m-digallic acid, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ellagic acid, leucocyanidin, m-digallic dimer 3,4,5,7-tetrahydroxy flavan-3-ol, oligomer 3,4,7-trihydroxy flavan 3,4-diol, 3,4,5,7-tetrahydroxy flavan-3-ol, and (-)-epicatechol as the major constituents7.

Chemical Structure:

 

acacia-nilotica-l-willd-ex-delile-st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

A. nilotica is traditionally used for the treatment of cancer, tumors, fever, hemorrhages, leucorrhea, ophthalmia, cold, congestion, coughs, and sclerosis. It is also used as an antiscorbutic, antispasmodial, nerve stimulant, astringent, antioxidant, diuretic, and hypoglycaemic agent8. Gum is demulcent for inflammatory conditions of respiratory, digestive, and urinary tract8. An infusion of the pods and bark is a common remedy for gastrointestinal disorders9. Pods are reported to be effective for the treatment of urinogenital disorders10. The pulverized pods/ seeds are used as cicatrizant for mouth sores of syphilitic ulcers, while a decoction of the fruits with ginger is used as a mouthwash to treat toothache9.

A. nilotica has been reported to be very useful in the treatment of diarrhea and cough in humans. The plant have been reported asantimicrobial, antimalarial2, antibacterial5, antifungal11,12, anthelmintic13, antioxidant14, cytotoxic15, and antihypertensive16. The aqueous methanol extract of pods showedantidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities17.

REFERENCES:

1.Flora of Pakistan: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspxflora_id=5&taxon_id=200011856.

2. Ali, A.J., Akanya, H.O., and Dauda, B. E. N. (2010). Polygalloyltannin Isolated from the Roots of Acacia nilotica (Leguminoseae) is Effective against Plasmodium berghei In Mice. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 4(12), 1169-1175.

3. Kalaivani, T., Rajasekaran, C., Suthindhiran, K., and Mathew, L. (2011). Free Radical Scavenging, Cytotoxic and Hemolytic Activities from Leaves of Acacia nilotica (L.) Wild. ex. Delile subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan. Evidence Based on Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 274741.

4. http://www.mpbd.info/plants/acacia-nilotica.php.

5. Banso, A. (2009). Phytochemical and Antibacterial Investigation of Bark Extracts of Acacia Nilotica. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 3(2),82-085.

6. Malviya, S., Rawat, S., Kharia, A., and Verma, M. (2011). Medicinal attributes of Acacia nilotica-A Comprehensive Review on Ethnopharmacological Claims. International Journal of Pharmacy & Life Sciences, 2(6), 830–837.

7. Ali, A., Akhtar, N., Khan, B. A., Khan, M. S., Rasul, A., Khalid, N., and Ali, L. (2012). Acacia nilotica: A plant of multipurpose medicinal uses. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 6(9), 1492–1496.

8. Khare, C. P. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants, p.836, Springer Science Publishers, New York, USA.

9. Amos, S., Akah, P. A., Odukwe, C. J., Gamaniel, K. S., and Wambede, C. (1999). The Pharmacological Effects of an Aqueous Extract from Acacia nilotica Phytotherapy Research, 13, 683–685.

10. Tervedi, P. C., and Sharma, N. K. (2004). Ethnomedicinal Plants, p.183, Tervedi, P.C., Pointer Publisher, Jodhpur, India.

11. Mahesh, B., and Satish, S. (2008). Antimicrobial Activity of Some Important Medicinal Plant against Plant and Human Pathogens. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences,4(S), 839-843.

12. Satish, S., Mohana, D. C., and Raghvendra, M. P. (2007). Antifungal Activity of Some Plant Extracts against Important Seed Borne Pathogens of Aspergillus Journal of Agricultural Technology, 3(1), 109-119.

13. Bachayaa, H. A., Zafar, I., and Nisar, K. M. (2009). Anthelmintic activity of Ziziphus nummularia (bark) and Acacia nilotica (fruit) against Trichostrongylid Nematodesof Sheep. Journal of Ethnopharmacology,123, 325–329.

14. Singh, R., and Singh, B. (2008). Anti-Free Radical Activities of Kaempferol Isolated from Acacia nilotica.Toxicology in Vitro, 22(8), 1965–1970.

15. Kaur, K., Michael, H., Arora, S. (2005). In Vitro Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation and Characterization of Polyphenolic Inhibitory Fractions from Acacia nilotica. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 99, 353–360.

16. Gilani, A.H. (1999). Studies on Antihypertensive and Antispasmodic Activities of Methanol Extract of Acacia Nilotica Phytotherapy Research, 13(8), 665-669.

17. Ahmad, M. (2008). Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Aqueous Ethanolic Extract of Acacianilotica Pods in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rabbits. Scandinavian Journal of Laboratory Animal Science, 35(1).

Achillea millefolium L.

Achillea millefolium L.

Botanical Name:             Achillea millefoliumL.

Kingdom:                      Plantae

Order:                           Asterales

Family:                         Asteraceae

Genus:                          Achillea

Local Name:                  Gumandar

Sindhi Name:                 Gumandar

English Name:               Yarrow

Parts Used:                    Whole plant

Description

Achillea millefoliumL. is an erect,herbaceous, andperennial plant. Stem has arhizomatousgrowth form. Leaves are long, bipinnate or tripinnate, almost feathery, evenly distributed along the stem, and have varying degrees of hairiness. There are 3 to 8 ray flowers which are ovate to round and 15 to 40 disk flowers. Inflorescence is produced in a flat-topped cluster. Fruits are smallachenes1.

Occurrence

A. millefoliumis native to the northern hemisphere, and Eurasia, but is widely naturalized in the United States. Now it is widely distributed in Asia, such as Iran, Afghanistan, Turkey, and the Indian Subcontinent.In Pakistan, it is found in Changla gali, Gilgit, Astor, Deosai, Hazara, Swat, Muree hills, Poonch, and Kashmir. It is also cultivated in garden.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Expulsion of Umbilical Cord

Achillea millefoliumL. (Yarrow) are ground to make paste. Suppositories are prepared from it and placed intra-vaginallyfor 5-6 days for expulsion of umbilical cord after dilation and curettage, and childbirth in District Thatta (Sindh).

Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases

A. millefoliumand Origanum vulgareL. (Oregano)are ground to make paste and tablets are prepared. These tablets are placed intra-vaginally for 3-5 days at night daily for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory diseases in District Thatta (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

Carotenoids, coumarins, fatty alcohols, hydrocarbons, proteins, protein–carbohydrate complexes, resins, tannins, amino acids, and carbohydrates have been isolated from yarrow plant. Components identified include borneol, bornyl acetate (trace), camphor, 1,8-cineole, eucalyptol, limonene, sabinene, terpineol, and α-thujone (monoterpenes), caryophyllene (a sesquiterpene), achillicin, achillin,millefin and millefolide (sesquiterpene lactones), azulene (major component, absent in fresh herbs), chamzulene (sesquiterpene lactone derived), and isoartemisia ketone2. The presence of sterols and triterpenols has been reported3. The flavonoids include apigenin, apigenin glycosides, artemetin, casticin, rutin, 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4¢-tetramethoxyflavone,etc. Alkaloidsand other bases include achiceine, achilletin, betain, betonicine, choline, and trigonelline4.

Chemical Structure:

achillea-millefolium-l-st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

A. millefoliumis used in the treatment of amenorrhea, gastro-intestinal disorders,dyspepsia, gastritis, menorrhagia, headaches, inflammation, diabetes1, overactive cardiovascular, and respiratory ailments5. It stimulates digestion, and regulates and relieves pain associated with menstruation1. Aerial parts of the plant are used for the treatment of intestinal and female reproductive tract inflammation6. It also expels kidney stones, and is useful in fever7, epilepsy, rheumatism, and cold8.

Various pharmacological properties of A. millefoliumhave been reported in animal studies, supporting its reputed herbal uses. Yarrow is a non-toxic plant but its volatile oil is contra-indicated in pregnancy. Caution is advised for treating epilepstic person2. A. millefolium exhibits anti-inflammatory, antidiuretic, CNS-depressant, antibacterial, antispasmodic, antipyretic, hypotensive, cytotoxic, astringent2, antioxidant, antimicrobial9, antiphlogistic, hepatoprotective10, and anticoagulant activities11. The crude methanolic extract showed antiplasmodial activity10.

REFERENCES

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achillea_millefolium
  2. Khan, A. U., and Gilani, A. H. (2011). Blood Pressure Lowering, Cardiovascular Inhibitory and Bronchodilatory Activites of Achilea milefolium. Phytotherapy Research, 25, 577–583.
  3. Ivancheva, S., Nikolova, M., and Tsvetkova, R. (2006). Phytochemistry: Advances in Research, 87-103, ISBN: 81-308-0034-9.
  4. Pullaiah, T. (2006). Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants, 1, 38-39. New Delhi, India: Regency Publications.
  5. Daniel, M. (2006). Medicinal Plants-Chemistry and Properties, p.83. New Delhi, India: Primlani, M., Oxford and IBH Publisher.
  6. Chandler, R. F., Hooper, S. N., and Harvey, M.J. (1982).Ethnobotany and Phytochemistry of Yarrow, Achillea millefolium, Compositae. Economic Botany, 36(2), 203-223.
  7. http://catbull.com/alamut/Bibliothek/achillea-millefolium-yarrow.pdf
  8. Chandler, R. F., Freeman L., and Hooper S. N. (1979). Herbal Remedies of the Maritime Indians. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 1, 49-68.
  9. Candan, F., Unlub, M., Tepec, B., and Daferera, D. (2003).Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extracts of Achillea millefolium millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae), Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 87, 215–220.
  10. Vitalini, S. (2011). Phenolic compounds from Achillea millefolium and their Bioactivity. Acta Biochimica Polonica, 58(2).
  11. Miller, F. M., and Chow, L. M. (1954). Alkaloids of Achillea millefolium Isolation and characterization of Achilleine. Journal of American Chemical Society,76, 1353-1354

Acorus calamusL.

Botanical Name:             Acorus calamus L.acorus-calamus-l

Kingdom:                      Plantae

Order:                           Acorales

Family:                         Acoraceae

Genus:                          Acorus

Local Name:                  Gur Bach

Sindhi Name:                 Kini kathi

English Name:               Sweet flag, Calamus

Part Used:                     Whole plant

Description:

Acorus calamus L.is a semi aquatic and perennial herb with creeping and branched rhizomes1. The plant grows up to 40 cm in height. Erect leaves are yellowish green in color and about 2 to 3 feet in length2. Flowers are cylindrical in shape, and found in densely packed spadix inflorescence. Fruitsare berry like with few seeds1.

Occurrence

A. calamus is indigenous to India and Pakistan but is also found in Europe, southern Russia, northern Asia  Minor, southern Siberia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Burma, Sri Lanka, and Australia.In Pakistan, it is found in temperate hilly areas of Hazara, Dir, Swat, Chitral, Jhalwan, and Azad Kashmir at an altitude of 1,850 and 2,500 metres in marshy places.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Dysmenorrhea, Infertility, and Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases

Acorus calamus L. (Sweet flag), Lallemantia royleanaBenth. (Black psyllium), Anethum sowa Roxb. (Dill), Origanum vulgareL. (Oregano), Tamarindus indicaL. (Tamarind), Elettaria cardamomumMaton. (Green cardamom), Trigonella foenumgraecum L. (Fenugreek), mosfai*, red earth, Embelia robustaRoxb. (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgarisL. (French bean), gondo*, Gossypium arboreumL. (Cotton), and Mentha piperitaL. (Peppermint) are taken in equal quantities, and mashed to make powder. Vaginal suppositories are prepared from it and used for the treatment of infertility in District Kamber (Sindh). In the same district, these suppositories are placed for 6-8 nights regularly are also used for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory diseases as well as dysmenorrhea.

Dysmenorrhea and Leucorrhea

A. calamus L. (Sweet flag), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), sufaid wal*, kali wal*, and rock salt are crushed to a fine powder. The powder is then mixed with some water and converted into small tablet. The tablet is advised to place it intra-vaginally in the morning and removed at night. The treatments are continued for 10 days. The same remedy is used for the treatment of leucorrhea.

 Infertility

  1. Powder of A. calamus, Anethum sowa (Dill), and Helicteres isoraL. (Indian screw) are taken in equal amount, and kneaded with clarified butter to make intra-vaginal tablets. These tablets are prescribed for the treatment of infertility in District Thatta (Sindh).
  2. Equal amount of A. calamus, Anethum sowa (Dill), Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Cannabis sativa L. (Marijuana), Embelia robusta (Embelia), and Phaseolus vulgaris (French beans) are ground, and mixed with some water to make marble size tablets. A tablet is placed intra-veginally for 10-12 days in morning and removed at night. This remedy is used for the treatment of infertility in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  3. A. calamus, Cannabis sativa (Marijauna) leaves, peel of Punica granatumL. (Pomegranate), Trigonella foenumgraecum(Fenugreek seeds), Anethum sowa (Dill), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), Salvia plebeiaR. Brown. (Sage weed), Withania coagulansDunal. (Vegetable rennet), Terminalia chebulaRetz. (Black myrobalau), and jaggery are ground to make paste. It is used to prepare vaginal suppositories and placed intra-veginally for 3 nights regularlyfor the treatment of infertility in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  4. Ground A. calamus, Cannabis sativa (Marijauna) leaves, Origanum vulgare (Oregano), gawatho* (Purchased from pansar), Citrullus colocynthis(L.) Schrad. (Bitter apple), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Anethum sowa (Dill), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), mosfai, and Salvia plebeia (Sage weed) together are used to make paste. It is placedintra-vaginally in the morning and removed at night after periods for 3 days regularly. This remedy is used for the treatment of infertility in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  5. Small piece of A. calamus is placed intra-vaginally for the treatment of infertility in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Menstruation Problem and Strengthening of Uterus

Mixture of A. calamus, mojotal*, mosfa*, soap stone, Embelia ribes Burm. f.(False black pepper), Morus acidosa Griff. (Mulberry), Tamarindus indica(Tamarind), Holarrhena antidysenterica L. (Tellichery bark and coneru), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Salvia plebeia (English plebeian), Cassia angustifoliaL. (Indian senna), Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet), Allium cepaL. (Onion), Prunus amygdalusBatsch. (Almond), chowe oil*, Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. (Nickernuts), crystals sugar, and zalanani khal* are powdered, and converted into intra-vaginally tablets that is used for the treatment of menstrual problem as well as strengthening of uterus in District Thatta (Sindh).

Shrinking of Abdominal Size after Childbirth

Fresh leaves Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium) are mashed and mixed withgrounded A. calamus, Azadirachta indicaJ. Juss. (Margose), Acorus calamus (Sweet flag), samoori*, and brown sugar.Intra-vaginal tablet are prepared from it and used for shrinking the abdominal size after childbirth in District Dadu (Sindh).

Leucorrhea

Equal quantities of A. calamus, Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano),and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are mashed to make paste. It is taken orally for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh). In this paste, Cannabis sativa (Marijuana) is added to make tablets,and placed intra-vaginally for 4 days for same purpose.

Dyspareunia

  1. Equal amount of A. calamus, Anethum sowa (Dill),Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Cannabis sativa (Marijuana), Embelia robusta (Embelia), and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are ground, and mixed with butterto make intra-vaginal tablets, used for the treatment of dyspareunia in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  2. Equal quantities of Foeniculum vulgarevar. dulce. (Fennel),Cannabis sativa (Marijuana),and A. calamus are ground, and mixed with mashed fresh leaves of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium) to make tablets and placed intra-vaginally for 3 days at night regularly for the treatment of dyspareunia in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  3. Equal quantities of fresh leaves of Anethum sowa (Dill), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Cannabis sativa (Marijuana),and A. calamus are mashed to make paste, and placed intra-vaginally in the form of suppositories for 6-7 days in the morning and removed at night. It is also placed intra-anally for 3 days. This is used for the treatment of dyspareunia in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases

A. calamus, Cicer arietinumL. (Chickpea), Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Salvia plebeian (Sage weed), sonu ghero*, Citrullus colocynthis(Bitter apple), Holarrhena antidysenterica (Tellichery bark and coneru), mosfai*, and red earth are ground in equal quantities to make vaginal suppositories,and placed intra-vaginally at night for 3 day, if symptoms persist it is continued for 3 weeks. The remedy is used for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory diseases in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

A. calamus, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Amomum subulatum Roxb.(Black cardamom), Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet), ghorawal, and slug of Mentha piperita (Peppermint) are fried in 100 g butter, and then soaked jaggery is added to make an oraldrink called “Tringh”. Tringh istaken one cup thrice a day for a week for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory diseases in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Contraception and Leucorrhea

A. calamus, sat sutyoon (purchased from pansar), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Peganum harmala L. (Harmal), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Berberis vulgaris L. (European barberry), and mar mushik* are ground to make a powder. A tablespoon of the powder is takenorally twice a day for 3 days for the treatment of leucorrhea as well as act as contraceptive agent in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Strengthening of Uterus, Leucorrhea, and Infertility

Ground A. calamus, Pinus gerardiana Wall. ex D. Don. (Pinus), dried Cocos nucifera (Coconut),Anethum sowa (Dill), candy sugar, Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), sinyar*, jaggery, Glycyrrhiza glabraL. (Liquorice), Quercus infectoria Olivier.(Gall oak), crystal sugar, Punica granatum (Pomegranate), mosfa*, Rosa indica L.(Rose), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), dakh*, and mustard oil together, and small suppositories are prepared. It is placed intra-vaginally once a day for three days for the treatment of leucorrhea, and infertility in District Jamshoro (Sindh). This remedy is also used for strengthening of uterus.

Dysmenorrhea

  1. Ground A. calamus, Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric), Symplocos racemosaRoxb. (Lodh), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), Origanum vulgare(Oregano), and Trachyspermum ammi(Carom seeds) into a fine powder to make vaginal suppositories, placed intra-vaginallytwice a day for 3 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Tando Allahyar (Sindh).
  2. Small piece of A. calamus is placed intra-vaginally at night for 3 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  3. Ground A. calamus, Anethum sowa (Dill), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), Cannabis sativa(Marijuana), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Terminalia chebula (Black myrobalan), Terminalia bellirica (Belliric myrobalan), and zaifan wari sutti (Purchased from pansar) to make powder. This powder is then mixed with Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet) and jaggery, to preparevaginal suppositories, and placed intrvaginally for 11 nights regularly for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  4. Ground fresh leaves of Cannabis sativa (Marijauna), Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), and Acorus calamus (Sweet flag) to make tabletsIt is placed intra-vaginally at night and removed in the morning during last 3 days of periods for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  5. Ground A. calamus, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), fresh leaves of Cannabis sativa (Marijauna), Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), and Mentha piperita (Peppermint) to make suppositories. It is placed intra-vaginally in the morning and removed after 2 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  6. A. calamus, Myristica fragransHoutt. (Nutmeg), slug of Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), Cannabis sativa (Marijuana), and jaggery are mashed, and mixed with some water to make vaginal suppositories for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Fibroid Uterus

Vaginal suppositories are prepared by grindingA. calamus, Cannabis sativa (Marijauna) leaves, Anethum sowa (Dill), Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), and crystal sugar. Suppositories are placed intravaginally for 10 days in the morning and removed at night for the treatment of fibroid uterus in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Infertility and Menorrhagia

Equal quantities of fresh leaves of A. calamus, Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), and Cannabis sativa (Marijuana)are mashed to make paste. It is placed intra-vaginally for the treatment of infertility as well as polymenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Polymenorrhea and Menorrhagia

Ground A. calamus, Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), chori bhata*, Tamarindus indica(Tamarind), Salvia plebeia(Sage weed), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet), and flowers of Rosa indica (Rose) are fried in butter, and then some water is added to make a drink called “Tringh”. Tringh is prescribed for the treatment of menorrhagia and polymenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Scanty Menses

A. calamus, Cannabis sativa (Marijauna) leaves, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), leaves of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), and Mentha piperita (Peppermint) are ground, and then boiled in some water. This water is consumed orally for the treatment of scanty menses in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Post partum Hemorrhage and Prevention of Miscarriage

Equal quantities of fresh leaves of A. calamus, Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), andCannabis sativa (Marijuana)are ground to make a paste, and taken orally for post partum hemorrhage in District Kashmore (Sindh). This paste is also used to prepare vaginal suppositories placed intravaginally at night and removed in the morning for 3 days for the prevention of miscarriage in same District.

Leucorrhea, Prolapsed Uterus, and Prevention of Miscarriage

Equal quantities of A. calamus, Apium graveolens (Celery), and Embelia ribes (False black pepper), and jaggery are ground into a powder form. This powder is used to prepare vaginal suppositories for the treatment of leucorrheaand prolapsed uterus in District Khairpur (Sindh). These suppositories are also placed intra-vaginally for the prevention of miscarriage in Districts Khairpur and Sanghar (Sindh).

Dilation and Curettage (D & C) after Abortion

A. calamus, Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), fried Allium cepa (Onion), and leaves of Azadirachta indica (Margose) are crushed to obtain powder to make tablets which are placed intravaginally for 10-15 days for dilation and curettage after abortion in District Thatta (Sindh).

A. calamus L. (Sweet flag), Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Quercus infectoria Olivier. (Gall oak), Allium cepa L. (Onion), and Azadirachta indica J. Juss. (Margose) leaves are crushed to make tablets. These are placed intra-vaginally for 10-15 days after miscarriage.

Shrinking of Abdominal Size after Childbirth, Backache, Leucorrhea and Abdominal pain

Equal quantities of A. calamus, Origanum vulgare (Oregano), jaggery, and sau siyan* are mixed with oil to make small tablets, and placed intravaginally for 4 days  used for shrinking abdominal size after childbirth in District Thatta (Sindh). These tablets are also used for the treatment of backache during menstruation and leucorrhea in a same District.

Backache, Leucorrhea, and Expulsion of Umbilical Cordafter Child Birth

Ground A. calamus, Embelia ribes (False black pepper), Morus acidosa (Mulberry), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Salvia plebeia (English plebeian), Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.(Belliric myrobalan), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), khurbat*,sehat gund*, slug and dried Mentha piperita (Peppermint), kahri*, kachri kapor*, Papaver somniferum L. (Opium), samund gujri*, pamlet*, Prunus amygdalus(Almond), Commiphora mukul (Stocks) Hook. (Indian bdellium), Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet), dried Cocus nucifera (Coconut), candy sugar, little bit of Saussurea lappa DC. (Costus), 2-4 Eugenia caryophyllataThumb. (Clove), mohn jot*, mohnsafa*, Juniperus communis L. (Juniper), Anethum sowa(Dill), chowrn*, Azadiracta indica(Margose) to make a paste. It is mixed with 4-5 fried Terminalia chebulaRetz. (Black myrobalau), honey, red earth, and a pinch of rock salt, and used orally as well as to make tablets. The tablet is placed intravaginally once a day for 40 days after delivery for the treatment of leucorrhea, backache during menstruation, and expulsion of umbilical cord in District Thatta (Sindh).

Menstrual Problem, Infertility, and Leucorrhea

Ground A. calamus, Boswellia serrata Roxb. (Indian frankincense), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Terminalia chebula (Black myrobalan), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), dried Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Allium sativumL. (Garlic), Commiphora mukul (Indian bdellium), halbhiyao*, khurbat*, and regular salt into a paste. It is placed intra-vaginally for 8-10 days after periods for the treatment of infertility, leucorrhea, and menstrual problem, such as dysmenorrhea in District Thatta (Sindh).

Prevention of MiscarriageAmenorrhea

Ground A. calamus andQuercus infectoria (Gall oak) in equal quantities, and placed intra-vaginally for 6-7 days for the treatment of amenorrhea as well as for the prevention of miscarriage in District Umerkot (Sindh).

Amenorrhea

  1. Ground calamus is soaked in water for few hours and the extract is taken orally in the morning till period starts for the treatment of amenorrhea in District Umerkot (Sindh).
  2. Acorus calamus (Sweet flag) and kharyun chanyun* is ground to make 1 to 2 inch suppositories. These suppositories are placed intra-vaginally once daily for 6-7 days. This is remedy is used only by married women.
  3. calamus (Sweet flag), Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Trigonella foenumgraecum L. (Fenugreek), and leaves of Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint) are crushed in small amounts and boiled in 2 glass of water. This drink is taken once daily regularly for 3 days.

Leucorrhea and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Ground A. calamus is used to make intra-vaginal tablets for the treatment of leucorrhea and sexually transmitted diseases in District Umerkot (Sindh).

Chemical Constituent

A. calamus constituents includes spathulenol, borneol, furylethyl ketone, 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-hexanol, galgravin, epieudesmin, retusin, butyl butanoate, acetophenone, isoeugenol methylether, apigenin 4′,7-dimethyl ether, dehydrodiisoeugenol, and elemicin1.Besides tannin, asarone oil (α and β asarone), mucin, resins3,and phenylpropanes4have been isolated from the plant. Root contains calamenone (a tricyclic sesquiterpene), calamendiol, and isocalamendiol. Acorus oil has terpenoids calamine, calamenol, calamenone, eugenol, camphene, asaronaldehyde, acorafuran4, methyleugenol, cis-methylisoeugenol, β-asarone,

Chemical Structure:

acorus-calamus-l-st

geranylacetate, β-farnesene, shyobunone, epishyobunone, and isoshyobunone5.

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

A. calamus is used for the treatment of leucorrhea6,dysmenorrhea, irregular menstruation7,fever, headache during menstruation8,9,infertilitydue to cold womb10, and recurrent abortion11. The rhizomesare used as carminative and stimulant12,13. Plant is traditionally used against fever, asthma, bronchitis, cough, and for digestive problems14. Depression and other mental disorders, tumors, haemorrhoids, skin diseases, numbness, and general debility are also treated with A. calamus15.

Different parts of the plant, such as leaf, rhizome, root,etc.are reported for different biological activities. The plant extracts hasbeen documented for its nephroprotective, CNS-depressent4, antibacterial16, antifungal, antioxidant, antiulcer, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic17, antiinflammatory, and anticonvulsant activities18.

REFERENCES

  1. Balakumbahan, R., Rajamani, K., and Kumanan, K. (2010). Acorus calamus: An Overview. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 4(25), 2740-2745.
  2. http://botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/s/sedges39.html#des
  3. Wang, X. (2007). Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu. Patent no.CN 101085122 A 20071212.
  4. Wang, F., and Wang, W. (2010).Faming Zhuanli Shenqing. Patent no.CN 101837113 A 20100922.
  5. Liu, Z., and Liu, L. (2006). Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu. Patent no. CN 1857690 A 20061108.
  6. Wang, F., and Wang, W. (2010).Faming Zhuanli Shenqing. Patent no. CN 101829315 A 20100915.
  7. Yang, J. (1992).Faming Zhuanli Shenqing. Patent no. CN 1065802 A 19921104.
  8. Liu, B. (1998).Faming Zhuanli Shenqing. Patent no. CN 1200936 A 19981209.
  9. Bhatacharjee, K. S. (2004).Handbook of Medicinal Plants, p. 14, Pointer Publishers, Jiapur, India.
  10. Parjapati, N. D. (2003).A Handbook of Medicinal Plants, p. 14, Agrobios Publisher, Jodhpur, India.
  11. http://www.academicjournals.org/JMPR/PDF/pdf2010/29Dec/Balakumbahan%20et%20al.pdf
  12. Tiwari, N., Chaudhary, A., and Mishra, A. (2010). Pharmacology Online, p. 435-445, Published by University of Salerno, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.
  13. Mythil, A., and Selvaraj, C. I. (2013).The Sweetness and Bitterness of Sweet Flag– A Review.Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological, and Chemical Sciences. 4(2), 598-610.
  14. Pandy, V., Jose, N., and Subhash, H. (2009).CNS Activity of Methanol and Acetone Extracts of Acorus calamusLeaves in Mice. Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 4(2), 79-86.
  15. Motley, T. J. (1994). The Ethnobotany of Sweet Flag, Acorus calamus (Araceae). Economic Botany, 48(4), 397.
  16. http://kiranbabutiwari.blogspot.com/2008/07/antibacterial-of-some-html.
  17. Divya, G., Gajalakshmi, S., Mythili, S., and Sathiavelu, A. (2011). Pharmacological Activities of Acorus calamus: A Review. Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 1(4).
  18. Jayaraman, R.T., Anitha T., and Joshi V. D. (2010). Analgesic and Anticonvulsant Effects of Acorus calamusRoots in Mice. International Journal of Pharmacology and Technical Ressearch, 2(1), 552-555.

Allium cepa L.

Botanical Name:             Allium cepa L.allium-cepa-l

Kingdom:                      Plantae

Order:                           Asparagales

Family:                         Alliaceae

Genus:                          Allium

Local Name:                  Piaz

Sindhi Name:                 Basar

English Name:               Onion

Parts Used:                    Tulip

Description

Allium cepa L. is perennial herb1. Bulb is clustered, white to brownish or reddish in color, and cylindrical to ovoid. Outer coats are papery. Scape is tall, stout, fistular, and usually inflated below the middle. Leaves are cylindrical and fistular. Umbels are spherical densely flowered2 that are borne on each scape. Root is fibrous and adventitious1. Flowers are stellate. Tepals are greenish-white, oblong, and obtuse. Filaments areexerted; inner ones are 2-toothed at the base2.

Occurrence

A. cepa is native to Central Asia, probably from Iran.It is now cultivated almost everywhere in the world, including Pakistan. Main Allium cepa L. producing District in Sindh are Ghotki, Nausherhroferoze, Nawabshah, Shikarpur, Sanghar, Mirpur Khas, and Hyderabad.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Infertility

Extract of Allium cepa L. (Onion) leaves is taken orally in the morning from the first day of period for 3 days for the treatment of infertility in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Amenorrhea

A. cepa are fried in oil and taken orally at night for 3 days for the treatment of amenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Inducing Labor Pain and Expulsion of Umbilical Cord

A. cepa is placed intra-anally for inducing labor pain in District Sanghar (Sindh). It is also placed intra-vaginally for expulsion of umbilical cord after delivery in District Thatta (Sindh).

Fibroid Uterus

Acorus calamus L.(Sweet flag), Anethum sowa Roxb.(Dill), crystal sugar, leaves of Azadirachta indica J. Juss.(Margose), and bulb of A. cepa are burnt into ashes. It is mixed with butter oil to make paste and then converted into intra-vaginal tablets for the treatment of fibroid uterus in District Thatta (Sindh).

Strengthening of Uterus and Menstruation Problem

Mixture of mojotal*, mosfa*, soap stone, Embelia ribes Burm. f. (False black pepper), Morus acidosa Griff. (Mulberry), Tamarindus indicaL.(Tamarind), Holarrhena antidysenterica L.(Tellichery bark and coneru), Acorus calamus (Sweet flag), Origanum vulgareL.(Oregano), Salvia plebeiaR. Brown. (English plebeian), Cassia angustifoliaVahl. (Indian senna), Withania coagulansDunal. (Vegetable rennet), A. cepa, Prunus amygdalus (Almond), chowe oil*, Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. (Nickernuts),crystals sugar, and zalanani khal* are powdered, and converted into intra-vaginal tablets that is used for the treatment of menstrual problem as well as strengthening of uterus in District Thatta (Sindh).

Dilation and Curettage after Abortion

Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Acorus calamus (Sweet flag), Quercus infectoriaOlivier. (Gall oak), fried A. cepa, and leaves of Azadirachta indica (Margose) are crushed to obtain powder and make tablets. A tablet is advised to place intra-veginally for 10-15 days after miscarriage in District Thatta (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

A. cepa has four major groups of compounds, whichinclude flavonoids, fructans, saponins, and sulfur-containing compounds. Flavonoids include flavonols(Quercetin and kaempferol). Anthocyanins contains at least eight quercetin glucosides, the 4¢-glucoside, the 7,4¢-diglucoside, the 3-4¢-diglucoside, the 3-glucoside, the 7-glucoside, the 3,7-diglucoside, the 3-rutinoside (rutin), the 3-rhamnoside (quercitrin), the 7,4¢-, and 3-glucosides of kaempferol, plus isorhamnetin 4¢-glucoside. Fructans includes oligofructans or fructooligosaccharides (FOS).Sulfur-containing compounds include cepaenes and thiosulfinates. Saponins are triterpenoids and steroid saponins3.

Chemical Structure:

allium-cepa-l-st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

A. cepa is used for the prevention of lactation of women in lactating period4.Onion is beneficial for those women who are at increased risk for osteoporosis5. Plant is effective against the respiratory diseases, tooth disorders, anemia, skin disorders, ear disorders, cholera, urinary system disorders, bleeding piles common cold, heart disease6, diarrhea, throat infection, and common cold7. Onion juice is used against ophthalmia and earache8.

A. cepa is reported for its antiasthmatic, anticholesterolemic1, anthelmintic, anticancer, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, hypotensive5, aphrodisiac8, antiinflammatory9, antioxidant10, antifertility11, and antidiabetic actions12.

REFERENCES

  • http://acepa.net76.net/Allium%20cepa.pdf.
  • Nasir, E. (1975). Flora of West Pakistan.83, p. 15-16, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
  • Hedges, L. J., and Lister, C. E. (2007).The Nutritional Attributes of Allium Species, p.3-4, New Zealand Institute for Crop and Food Research Limited, Christchurch, New Zealand.
  • Burtseva, G. A., and Krokha, N. G., (1997), Patent no. RU 2077233 C1 19970420.
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/onion.
  • http://www.bitterrootrestoration.com/medicinal-plants/onion-allium-cepa.html.
  • Ahmad, M. (2009). Useful Medicinal Flora Enlisted in Holy Quran and Ahadith. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, 5(1), 126-140.
  • T. (2006). Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants, 1, p.110, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.
  • Khare, C. P. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants, pg.33, Springer Science Publishers, New York, USA.
  • Helen, A. (2000). Antioxidant Effect of Onion Oil (Allium cepa) on the Damages Induced by Nicotine in Rats as Compared to Alpha-Tocopherol. Toxicology Letter, 116(1-2), 61-8.
  • Thakare, V. N., Kothavade, S. P., Dhote, V. V., and Deshpande, A. D. (2009). Antifertility Activity of Ethanolic Extract ofAllium cepa in Rats. International Journal of Pharmacology Technology Research, 1(1), 73-78.
  • Bajpal, K. G., Gupta, R., Johri, S., and Saxena, A. M. (2008). Study on Blood Sugar Lowering Activity of Allium cepa and Ocimum santum Linn. in Normal Experimental Rats. Flora and Fauna, 14(2), 283-286.

Allium sativum L.

Botanical Name:             Allium sativum L.allium-sativum-l

Kingdom:                      Plantae

Order:                           Asparagales

Family:                         Alliaceae

Genus:                          Allium

Local Name:                  Lehsan

Sindhi Name:                 Thooma

English Name:               Garlic

Parts Used:                    Bulb

Description

Allium sativum L. is a bulbous and perennial herb. It has a tall, erect flowering stem that reaches2-3 feet in height. Plant has pink or purple flowers that bloom in mid to late summer1.

Occurrence

A. sativumis native to southwestern Asia, Britain, China, India, Ukraine, Bangladesh, Russia, Burma, Egypt, Ethiopia, and North America. It is widely cultivated in Pakistan.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Menstrual Problem, Infertility, and Leucorrhea

Intra-vaginal tablets, prepared by grindingAllium sativum L. (Garlic), Boswellia serrata Roxb.(Indian frankincense), Origanum vulgareL. (Oregano), Acorus calamus L. (Sweet flag), Terminalia chebulaRetz. (Black myrobalan), Quercus infectoriaOlivier. (Gall oak), dried Mentha piperitaL. (Peppermint), Commiphora mukul(Stocks) Hook. (Indian bdellium), halbhiyao*, khurbat*, and regular salt into a paste. This paste is used to make small marble size tablets. One tablet is placed intra-veginally for 8-10 days after mensturation. It is used for infertility, leucorrhea, and menstrual problem, such as dysmenorrhea in District Thatta (Sindh).

Labor Pain

A. sativum is placed intra-vaginally for inducing labor pain in District Tando Muhammad Khan (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

A. sativum contains at least 33 sulfur-containing compounds, several enzymes, 17 amino acids, and minerals2.It has high levels of saponins, some phenolics, and provitamin A. Sulfur compounds are gamma glutamylcysteines and cysteine sulfoxides. Parent substance is allylcysteine sulfopoxide, or alliin, and the major flavonols are myricetin and apigenin. It also contains low levels of quercetin3.

Chemical Structure:

allium-sativum-l-st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

A. sativum is used in the form of juice, poultice, and syrup. It is successfully used by AIDS patients for the treatment of cryptosporidium4. Bulb is used for the treatment of constipation, joint pain, fever, bacterial, and fungal infections5. It is used as contraceptive and antispermetogenesis6. It regulates menstruation, and treats vaginal pruritus7, atherosclerosis, and hyperlipidemia8. It act as an antimicrobial and preventive agent for cancer1,8.

A. sativum has been reported for various biological activities from ancient times. Hydrogen sulphide production and allicin content might be responsible for blood pressure reducing property2. It is also reported for antihypertensive, anticancer, antiatherosclerosis, immunomodulatory, antifungal, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, antihelmentic2, antioxidant, fibrinolysis, hypolipidemic3, antidiabetic9,10, and anti-inflammatory properties11. A. sativum has been proven effective against gram-positive, gram-negative, and acid-fast bacteria11. Terpenoids and alkaloids compounds might be responsible for wound healing process12.

REFERENCES

  • http://www.longwoodherbal.org/garlic/garlic.pdf
  • Londhe, V. P., Gavasane, A. T., Nipate, S. S., Bandawane, D. D., and Chaudhari, P. D. (2011). Review Role of Garlic (Allium sativum) in Various Diseases: An Overview. Journal of pharmaceutical Research and Opinion, 1(4), 129–134.
  • Hedges, L. J., and Lister, C. E. (2007).The Nutritional Attributes of Allium Species. Institute for Crop and Food Research Limited, Christchurch, New Zealand.
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garlic
  • Pullaih, T. (2006). Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants, 1, p. 113, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.
  • Ishtiaq, M., Hanif, W., Khan, M. A., Ashraf, M., and Butt, A. M. (2007). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 10(13), 2241-56.
  • Hu, M. (2009). Faming Zhuanli Shenqing. Patent no. 101406608 A 20090415.
  • Peter, B., Bongiorno, P. M., and Fratellone, P. L. (2008). Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine. 5(1), Art. 1, The Berkeley Electronic Press Publishers, United States.
  • Younasa, J., and Hussainb, F. (2014). In Vitro Antidiabetic Evaluation of Allium sativum. International Journal of Chemical and Biological Science, 5, 22-25.
  • Zuber, M. (2013). Wound Healing Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Allium sativum on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats Family (Liliaceae). International Journal of Science Inventions Today, 2(1), 40-57.
  • Pendbhaje, N., Narang, A., Pathan, S., Raotole, S., and Pattewar, S. (2011). Ethnopharmacology, Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Profile of Allium sativum : A Review. Pharmacologyonline.2, 845–853.
  • Rizwana, H.G., and Shareef, H. (2011). Genus Allium: The Potential Nutritive and Therapeutic Source. Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences, 1, 158-165.

 

 

 

Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.

Botanical Name:             Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.aloe-vera-l-burm-f

Kingdom:                      Plantae

Order:                           Asparagales

Family:                         Xanthorrhoeaceae

Genus:                          Aloe

Local Name:                  Aloe

Sindhi Name:                 Alva

English Name:               Aloe vera

Parts Used:                    Leaves and roots

Description:

Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. is a stemless, or very short-stemmed succulent plant, growing up to 60–100 cm tall. Leaves are thick and fleshy, green to grey-green in color,and numerous with serrated margins having small white teeth. Flowers are up to 90 cm (35 in) tall1, yellow in color, having no calyx but tubular corolla1.

Occurrence

A. verais believed to have originated in the Sudan. Itgrows in arid climates and is widely distributed in Africa, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and other arid areas.It is planted in gardens in Sind, Punjab, Baluchistan, and Khyber Phakhtoonkhuwa. It grows best in desert areas of Pakistan.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Ground equal quantities of Anethum sowa Roxb.(Dill), 3-4 Elettaria cardamomum Maton.(Green cardamom), Origanum vulgare L.(Oregano), Tamarindus indica L.(Tamarind), Embelia robustaRoxb.(Embelia), Phaseolus vulgarisL.(French bean), Cannabis sativa L.(Marijuana), andAloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Aloe vera), and mixed with a tablespoon of salt.Suppositories are prepared from it and advised to place intra-veginally in the morning and replaced the tablet with the new one in the next morning for 3 days for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory diseases,menorrhagia as well as for inducing labor pain in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Dyspareunia and Sexual Transmitted Diseases (STD)

Powdered Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), 3-4 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Tamarindus indicum (Tamrind), thank thuryon, 3-4 Prunus amygdalus Batsch. (Almond), Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), kaseely*, Tamarix aphylla L. (Salt cedar), A. vera (L.) Burm. f. (Aloe vera), and crystal sugar are fried in butter oil, and mixed with some water to make an oral remedy. It is advised to take 2 tablespoons for 40 days. It is recommended to avoid milk, butter and red chilli during the treatment.

Infertility and Retroverty Uterus

Roots of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Bitter apple), Rubia cordifolia L. (Common madder), and A.vera (L.) Burm. f. (Aloe vera) are soaked in water in a clay bowl overnight, and then ground to make suppositories. It is advised to place these suppositories intra-vaginally for 4 days for the treatment of infertility and retroverty uterus.

Leucorrhea and Menorrhagia

Crystal sugar, A. vera (L.) Burm. f. (Aloe vera), and chori ka pathar are mixed in clarified butter.1-2 Tablespoons of the remedy is advised to take orally daily in the morning for 5 days.

Chemical Constituents

A. veracontains lectins, fattyacids, chromones (8-C-glucosyl-7-O-methylaloediol, 8-C-glucosyl-noreugenin, isoaloeresin D, isorabaichromone, neoaloesin A), tannins, salicylic acid, choline, and choline salicylate. Sterol includes campesterol, sitosterol, and lupeol2.A biochemical catalyst includes lipase, alkaline phosphotase, amylase, carboxypeptidase, catalase, cellulase, lipase, and peroxidase. Glucomannans and polymanose are important long chain polysaccharides. Bitter aloes are rich in anthraquinones, such as emodin, aloetic acid, aloin, anthracine, anthranon, barbaloin, chrysophanic acid, ethereal oil, ester of cinnemonic acid, isobarbaloin, and resistannol3.

Chemical Structure:

aloe-vera-l-burm-f-st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

A. verais reported to be effective in menstrual diseases, stomachache, fever, and uterine disorders. Roots are used for the treatment of colic pain, and have antiseptic property.Pulp is useful in menstrual suppression, liver disorders, and rheumatism4.Pulp also acts as an aphrodisiac, emmenagogue, blood purifier, stomachic, anthelmintic, and as a purgative5. Pulp is applied externally on burns, skin rashes,insect bites, and chafed nipples from feeding. Leaves juice has cathartic and cooling effects6. Extract is useful in functional prevention of fluoride-led oxidative stress during pregnancy7.

A. veraleaves contains over 75 biologically active compounds, reported for various pharmacological activities including antitumor, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antimutagenic, antifungal2, cardiovascular, antiaging3, anticancer, antioxidant8, and gastroprotective properties9,10. It is also reported for immunostimulation, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, wound healing2,10, promotion of radiation damage repair, antibacterial, antiviral, and antineoplastic activities10.

REFERENCES

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aloe_vera.
  2. Joseph, B., and Raj, S. J. (2010). Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical properties of Aloe vera Linn – An Overview. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Reserach, 4(2), 106–110.
  3. Hossain, S., and Towfique, N. (2013). A Review on Ethnopharmacological Potential of Aloe vera L.Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology, 2(2), 113–120.
  4. Dhiman, A. K. (2006). Ayurvedic Drug Plants, 138-139. Daya Publishing House, Delhi, India.
  5. Sharma, R. (2003). Medicinal Plants of India-An Encyclopedia, p.18-19, Daya Publishing House,Delhi, India.
  6. Pullaiah T. (2006). Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants, 1,120, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.
  7.  Madhusudhan, N., Basha, P. M., Rai, P., Ahmed, F.,and Prasad, G. R. (2010).Effect of Maternal Fluoride Exposure on Developing CNS of Rats: Protective Role ofAloe vera, Curcuma longa, and Ocimum sanctum.Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 48(8), 830-6.
  8. El-Shemy, H. A., Aboul-Soud, M. A. M., Nassr-Allah, A. A., Aboul-Enein, K. M., Kabash, A., and Yagi, A. (2010). Antitumor Properties and Modulation of Antioxidant Enzymes Activity by Aloe vera Leaf Active Principles Isolated via Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction. Current Medicinal Chemistry,17(2), 129-138.
  9. Yusuf, S., and Agunu A. (2004). The Effect of Aloe vera Berger (Liliaceae) on Gastric Acid Secretion and Acute Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats.Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 93(1), 33-37.
  10. Hamman, J. H. (2008). Composition and Applications of Aloe vera Leaf Gel. Molecules, 13, 1599-1616.

Amomum subulatum Roxb.

Botanical Name:             Amomum subulatum Roxb.amomum-subulatum-roxb

Kingdom:                      Plantae

Order:                           Zingiberales

Family:                                     Zingeberaceae

Genus:                          Amomum

Local Name:                  Bari ellaichi

Sinshi Name:                 Wada phota

English Name:               Black cardamom

Parts Used:                    Whole plant

Description

Amomum subulatum Roxb. is a perennial and herbaceous plant with leafy stem1. Leaves are oblong. Rhizomes are underground with erect leafy shoot that encircle one another. Fruit capsules are long and irregular with several seeds in the cell, held together by a viscous pulp2. Flowers are white in color, and globose1. About 20-45 inflorescences are produced on each clump, while 30-50 flowers are produced on each inflorescence3.

Occurrence

A. subulatum is native to Nepal,Bangladesh, China, Bhutan,India, Sikkim, West Bengal, and Myanmar. It is also widely cultivated in Pakistan.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Abortion

  1. Powder of Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom) and Papaver somniferum L.(Opium) are mixed with cow’s milk. It is instilled in nose as a drop for inducing abortion in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  2. Excessuse of Sesamum indicum (Sesame) seeds and Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Balck cardamom) are advised for inducing abortion and for regulation of menstruation.
  3. Trachyspermum ammi (Carom), Peganum harmala (Harmal), Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (Ginger), A. subulatum (Black cardamom), Eugenia caryyophyllata Thumb. (Clove), and jaggery are boiled in 1 liter of water till 1/4 part is remained, then sieved it. A cup of this water extract is taken orally twice a day for 3 days.

Amenorrhea

Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium) leaves are ground with Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Black cardamom) and then water is added to make a drink. It is advised to take orally daily for 3 days

Leucorrhea

  1. A. subulatum, Elettaria cardamomumMaton. (Green cardamom), Quercus infectoria Olivier.(Gall oak), Origanum vulgareL.(Oregano), Areca catechu L.(Betel nut), Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (Indian senna), Zingiber officinale Roscoe.(Ginger), Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce.(Fennel), and Cuminum cyminum L. (Cumin) are ground in equal quantities. It is taken orally 2 tablespoon with water daily in the morning with empty stomach for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  2. A. subulatumand Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are mashedto make suppositories. These suppositories are first dipped in wine, and then in black and white glycerin.It is placed intra-vaginally every night for 3 days forthe treatment of leucorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  3. Equal quantities of A. subulatum, Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Areca catechu (Betel nut), and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are ground to make an oral paste, and taken orally after 6 days of period for 2-3 days for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Shahdatkot (Sindh).
  4. Powdered A. subulatum (Black cardamom), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), lorad*, Areca catechu (Betel nut), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), kapi khero*, Phyllanthus emblica L. (Indian gooseberry),peel of Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate), Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst. (Salt cedar), and sugar are mixed together and converted into suppositories. These suppositories are then dipped in rose water (Araq-e-gulab). Suppository is placed intra-vaginally for 3 days for the treatment of leucorrhea.

Menorrhagia

  1. A. subulatum, Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Embelia robusta Roxb. (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris L. (French beans), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), candy sugar, and achro* are fried in butter oil to make suppositories are prepared and placed intra-vaginally for 3 days at night for the treatment of dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  2. Powdered Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Areca catechu (Betel nut), lorad*, Salvia plebeia Brown. (Sage weed), kapi khero*, and A. subulatum Roxb. (Black cardamom) are mixed together to make a remedy. It is advised to takethe remedyorally on third day of menstruation for the treatment of menorrhagia.

Post Partum Hemorrhage

A. subulatum, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Mentha piperita L.(Peppermint), crystal sugar, and candy sugar are mashed to make suppositories and placed intra-vaginally for 3 days for the treatment of post partum heamorrhage in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Fibroid Uterus

Vaginal suppsoitories are prepared by grindingA. subulatum, Cannabis sativaL.(Marijauna) leaves, Anethum sowaRoxb. (Dill),Acorus calamusL.(Sweet flag), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), and crystal sugar, and usedfor the treatment of fibroid uterus in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Prevention of Miscarriage

  1. A. subulatum, Trigonella foenum-graecum L.(Fenugreek), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Anethum sowa (Dill), jaggery, and butter are boiled in 250 mL water.This water is consumed orallytwice a day for 6 months for the prevention of miscarriage in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  2. Equal quantities of 2 A. subulatum, Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Symplocos racemosaRoxb. (Lodh), Areca catechu (Betel nut), Salvia plebeiaR. Brown. (Sage weed), Terminalia bellirica(Gaertn.)Roxb.(Belliric myrobalau), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), crystal sugar, and candy sugar are ground to make oral remedy and taken 1 tablespoon twice a day for 5 days for the prevention of miscarriage in District Kamber (Sindh).

Amenorrhea and Dysmenorrhea

A. subulatum, boti madra*, Mentha piperita (Peppermint), and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom)are powdered,and taken orally 1 tablespoon with water for 3-4 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea and amenorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Infertility

A. subulatum, Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug, Areca catechu (Betel nut), Anethum sowa(Dill), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Piper nigrumL. (Black pepper), and Lallemantia royleanaBenth. (Black psyllium) are ground, and taken orally with some water in the morning with empty stomach for days for the treatment of infertility in District Kashmore(Sindh).

Prevention of Miscarriage and Infertility

Powdered mixture of A. subulatum, Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug, Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Areca catechu (Betel nut), Tamarindus indicaL. (Tamarind), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Trachyspermum ammi L.(Carom), dried Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Salvia plebeia(Sage weed), Symplocos racemosa (Lodh tree), behra*, kacha paka wai*, monhlalai*, mosfa*, candy sugar, nar chuhara (dry dates), and Prunus amygdalusBatsch.(Almond) are taken orally 1 table spoon for 1-2 months for the treatment of infertility as well as for the prevention of miscarriage in District Shahdatkot (Sindh).

Leucorrhea and Dysmenorrhea

Oral extract, prepared by boiling 2 A. subulatum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Garcin ex Blume. (True cinnamomum), 1 tablespoon Trachyspermum ammi (Carom), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), and 5-6 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) and taken orally 3-4 glasses of water per day for 3 days.It is used for the treatment of leucorrhea and dysmenorrhea in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Dysmenorrrhea

  1. Ground subulatum, Anethum sowa (Dill), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Cannabis sativa (Marijuana), Acorus calamus (Sweet flag), Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug, Terminalia chebula Retz. (Black myrobalau), Terminalia bellirica(Belliric myrobalau), and zaifan wari sutti (purchased from pansar) to make powder. This powder is then mixed with Withania coagulans Dunal. (Vegetable rennet) and jaggery, and prepared vaginal suppositories for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  2. 2-3 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), 1 subulatum (Black cardamom), and jaggery are ground together to prepare suppositories that are placed intravaginally for the treatment of dysmenorrhea.

Dyspareunia

  1. Seeds of Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom) are embedded in cotton cloth and placed intra-vaginally during day time for couple of hours for the treatment of dyspareunia.
  2. Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium) leaves and Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom) are powdered to make suppository. It is advised to place intra-vaginally for 4 days for the treatment of dyspareunia.
  3. Equal quantities of subulatum, Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), 3-4 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Cannabis sativa (Marijuana), and Mentha piperita (Peppermint) are ground, and placed intra-vaginally twice a day for 5-6 days for the treatment of dyspareunia in District Kamber (Sindh).

Labor Pain and Dysmenorrrhea

Fresh leaves of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), 1-2 A. subulatum, and half slug Mentha piperita (Peppermint) are ground to make fine powder, and taken orally with black tea for inducing labor pain in District Kamber (Sindh). It is also prescribed orally in the morning with empty stomach for 3-5 days for dysmenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Abortion and Labor Pain

 Piper nigrum (Black pepper), A. subulatum, Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), and Quercus infectoria (Gall oak) are ground, and taken orally once a day for 3 days in the morning for inducing labor pain and abortion in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Labor Pain

  1. Dipped A. subulatumin mustard oil and placed intra-vaginally for inducing labor pain in Districts Kamber and Khairpur (Sindh).
  2. Decoction of 2-3 A. subulatum are taken orally for inducing labor pain in Districts Kamber, Jacobabad, Khairpur (Sindh).
  3. Vaginal suppositories, prepared with grounded2 A. subulatum, Cocos nucifera (Coconut), crystal sugar, Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), 4-5 Prunus amygdalus (Almond), 3-4 Phoenix dactyliferaL. (Date palm), 2 slug of Mentha piperita (Peppermint), mosfai*, 3-4 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and 2 candy sugar, are used for inducing labor pain in District Kamber (Sindh).
  4. 4-6 Piper nigrum (Black pepper) and A. subulatumare boiled in milk, and then mixed with some butter. This remedy is taken for inducing labor pain in Districts Jacobabad (Sindh).
  5. Fried A. subulatumis placed intra-vaginally for inducing labor pain in Districts Jacobabad and Khairpur (Sindh).
  6. A. subulatum, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and candy sugarare boiled in 250mL of milk alongwith 50 mL butter oil for inducing labor pain in the morning for 3 days (during summer only) in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  7. A. subulatumis placed intra-anally for inducing labor pain in Districts Jacobabad and Kashmore (Sindh).
  8. Mixed honey and powder of A. subulatumto make vaginal suppositories for inducing labor pain in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  9. Dipped A. subulatumin butter oiland placed intra-anally for inducing labor pain in District Jacobabad (Sindh). It is also placed intra-vaginally in Districts Kashmore and Khairpur (Sindh).
  10. Vaginal suppositories, prepared by grindingElettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), subulatum, Eugenia caryophyllata Thumb.(Cloves), jaggery, and Piper nigrum (Black pepper), are used for inducing labor pain in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  11. Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug and subulatumare crushed to obtain a powder, and taken orally 1 tablespoon with water for inducing labor pain in District Khairpur (Sindh).
  12. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (True cinnamomum), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), subulatum, and jaggery are fried, and taken orally 3 times a day for inducing labor pain District Shahdatkot (Sindh).
  13. Withania coagulans (Vegetable renent), Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander), Terminalia chebula Retz. (Black myrobalau), Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), and jaggery are boiled in 2 glasses of milk till 1 glass remained. It is then used orally.
  14. Foeniculum vulgare dulce (Fennel) and Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Black cardamom) are boiled in 1 cup water for 10-15 minutes and taken orally.

Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases

  1. 10 g Anthum sowa (Dill), 8 g Cannabis sativus L. (Marijauna), a pinch of rock salt, and 2 A. subulatum Roxb. (Balck cardamom) are powdered, and then 20-30 fresh leaves of Lallemantia royleana Benth. (Black psyllium) are added and mixed thoroughly. It is advised to give it to lady for 3 days once daily. If not cured then this remedy is continued for further 3 days.
  2. Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), subulatum (Black cardamom), Acorus calamus L. (Sweet flag), Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet), cassia angustifolia (ghora wal), and Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug are fried in 100 g butter. Jaggery is dissolved in water and then sieved. The cooked mixture is added to the sieved water. This is known as Tringh. It is advised to drink 1 cup of the prepared mixture (tringh) thrice daily for a week regularly for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory diseases.

Shrinking the abdominal size after child birth Sexual transmitted diseases (STD)

Little bit of rock sugar, a pinch of rock salt, 10 gm Salvia plebeia R. Brown. (English plebeian), 10 g kahri*, 10 g Embelia ribes Burm.f. (False black pepper), 5 g Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), 10 g Apium graveolens L. (Celery), 1 whole Areca catechu L. (Betel nut), Quercus infectoria Olivier. (Gall oak), 10-12 g Anethum sowa Roxb. (Dill), 5-8 Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Green cardamom), 2-3 A. subulatum Roxb. (Black cardamom), and 2 slug of Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint) are crushed to obtain a powder form. This mixture is then sieved to remove unwanted large particles. Little quantity of this powder is ground with fresh and cleaned leaves of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), and 4-5 candy sugar to make a semi solid mass. It is then converted into marble like small tablets. Ladies are advised to place these tablets intra-vaginally twice a day for 5-8 days for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STD)and for shrinking of abdominal size after child birth.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)

Powdered Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Elettaria cardamomum(Green cardamom), and A. subulatumare mixed in equal quantities.It is taken orallyfor 3 days in the morning for the treatment of sexual transmitted diseases (STD) in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Conceiving Male Child

3-4 A. subulatumand Phoenix dactylifera (Dates) are ground to make a paste that is used orally for conceiving male child in District Kamber (Sindh).

Expulsion of Umbilical Cord after Delivery, Contraception, Infertility, and Backache during Menstruation

Crystal sugar little bit, 1 pinch of crystal salt, 10 g Salvia plebeia R. Brown. (Sage weed), 10 g Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (Lorad), 10 g Embelia ribes Burm. f. (False black pepper), 5 g Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), 10 g Apium graveolens L. (Celery), 1 g Areca catechuL. (Betel nut), Quercus infectoria Olivier. (Gall oak), 10-12 g Anthum sowa Roxb. (Dill), 5-8 Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Green cardamom), 2-3 A. subulatum Roxb. (Balck cardamom), and 2 slug of Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint) are powdered together, and sieved to remove unwanted large particles. It is then ground with fresh leaves of Lallemantia royleana Benth. (Balck psyllium) and 4-5 candy sugar. It is converted into semi solid mass. A marble like small tablets are prepared and dried in shadow. It is advised to place tablet intra-vaginally twice daily for 7 days. For expulsion of plasma membrane, it is advised to first give jaggery to lady after 2 hours of delivery and then above treatment is started from night.

Expulsion of umbilical cord after delivery

Equal amount of ground Apium graveolens L. (Celery), Embelia ribes Burm. f. (False black pepper), dry leaves and slug of Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), A. subulatum Roxb. (Black cardamom), crystal sugar, and candy sugar are taken, and this mixture is converted into small like marble like tablets.It is advised to place tablet intra-vaginally once daily for 6 days for the expulsion of umbilical cord after delivery.

Regulation of Menstrual Cycle

An equal amountofQuercus infectoria Olivier. (Gall oak), Anthum sowa Roxb. (Dill), Salvia plebeia R. Brown. (Sage weed) are taken in equal amount and 3-4 Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Green cardamom), 1 nut of Areca catechu L. (Betel nut), and 1.Balck cardamom are also added in it. All are ground in finest form and cooked in butter. Water is added to make soup like consistency.It is advised to take this formulation orally, for first three days of period for two months for regulation of menstrual cycle.

Chemical Constituents

A. subulatumcontains the glycosides, petunidin 3, 5-diglucoside, leucocyanidin-3-Oβ-D-glucopyranoside, chalcone, cardamonin, flavanone, alpinetin, and subulin. Subulin is further hydrolysed into the aglycone, and subulaurone. Volatile oils present in the seed include cineol, limonene, myrcene, α-terpinene, and 4-terpinene1.

Chemical Structure:

amomum-subulatum-roxb-st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

Decoction of A. subulatumseeds is used in abdominal pain. It is used as gargle in affections of teeth and gums. Seed powder is used against enlarged spleen and rectum diseases4. It is effective in gonorrhea5,6,7,8, and also possesses an aphrodisiac property7,8. Seeds are used as cardio- and liver tonic8. Seeds are antiemetic and used for the treatment of indigestion9. Traditionally, the plant is believed to be helpful in improving the skin complexion, as well as for the treatment of urinary disorders, and other infections. It also acts as an analgesic and relieving pain from body3.

A. subulatumis reported for its antimicrobial, antiulcer1, superoxide radical scavenging2, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, cardioadaptogen, antidiabetic, hypolipidaemic3, and antifungal activities10. Major constituents of the seeds, includes1,8-ceineoil, alphaterpineol, protocatechualdehyde, and protocatechuic acid possessed antioxidant activity. Secondary metabolites, such as tannins, alkaloids, and flavonoids showed antimicrobial activity3.

REFERENCES

  • Arora, M. (2013).Pharmacognostic and Pharmacological Studies of Amomum subulatum.Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2(1), 30-32.
  • Gopal, K., Baby, C., and Muhammad, A. (2012). Amomum subulatum Roxb: An Overview.International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 3(7).
  • Ritender, M. B., Bhatt, M., Juyal, V., and Singh, A. (2013). Amomum subulatum Roxb: A Critical Review of Pharmacological and Phytochemical Data. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Phytopharmacological Research, ISSN (Online) 2249-6084.
  • Pullaiah, T. (2006). Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants, 1, 143, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.
  • sciencezo.com/humboldt-fellow-and-science/blog/amomum-subulatum-roxb-has.medicinalpotential.
  • Chadha, Y. A. (2003). The Wealth of India -Raw Material,1-A, p. 229, National Institute of Science, Communication, and Information Resources, CSIR, Dr K. S. Kirshanan Marg, India.
  • Mhaskar, K. S., and Caius, J. F.(2000). Kirtikar and Basu’s Indian Medicinal Plants, 10, 3350, Sri Satguru Publications, Indological and Orintal publishers, Delhi, India.
  • Parjapati, N. D. (2003). A Handbook of Medicinal Plants, p. 40, Agrobios, Jodhpur, India.
  • Khare, C.P. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 44, Springer Science Publishers, New York, USA.
  • Kapoor, I. P. S., Singh, B., Singh, G., Isidorov, V., and Szczepaniak, L. (2008). Chemistry, Antifungal and Antioxidant Activities of Cardamom (Amomum subulatum) Essential Oil and Oleoresins. International Journal of Essential Oil Therapeutics, 2(1), 29-40.

Anethum sowa Roxb.

Botanical Name:             Anethum sowa Roxb.anethum-sowa-roxb

Kindom:                        Plantae

Order:                           Apiales

Family:                         Apiaceae/Umbellifarae

Genus:                          Anethum

Local Name:                  Soya

Sindhi Name:                 Sowa

English Name:               Dill

Part Used:                     Seeds and leaves

 Description:

Anethum sowa Roxb. is anaromatic annual herb. It grows up to 1 m in height with hollow and grooved stem. Leaves are compound, pinnate, and bluish-green in color.Segments are filiform and leaf sheath surroundsthe stem. Flowers are yellow in color. Fruits are narrowly winged, vitta large, and conspicuous1.

Occurrence

A. sowa is originated in Eastern Europe. Wild and weedy types of dill are widespread in the Mediterranean basin, West Asia, and in Pakistan. The plant grows as a weed of winter crops and distributed throughout Sindh.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Infertility

  1. Powder of Helicteres isoraL. (Indian screw), Anethum sowa Roxb. (Dill), and Acorus calamusL. (Sweet flag) in equal amount arekneaded with clarified butter to make vaginal tablets.These tablets are used for the treatment of infertility in District Thatta (Sindh).
  2. A. sowa and Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano) are boiled in some water.The decoction is used orally for 3 nights for the treatment of infertility in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  3. A. sowaand Origanum vulgare (Oregano) are ground and make vaginal suppositories from it, for the treatment of infertility in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  4. Equal amount of A. sowa, Lallemantia royleanaBenth. (Black psyllium), Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Acorus calamus (Sweet flag), Cannabis sativa L. (Marijuana), Embelia robustaRoxb.(Embelia), and Phaseolus vulgaris L. (French beans) are ground, and mixed with some water to make tablet and placed intravaginally for 10-12 days in the morning and removed at night for the treatment of infertility in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  5. A. sowa,Elettaria cardamomumMaton. (Green cardamom), Vitis vinifera L. (Grapes), jaggery, and Triticum aestivum L. (Wheat) are boiled in water.This decoction consumed orallyin the morning for 3 days for the treatment of infertility in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  6. FriedA. sowain clarified butter and taken orally for the treatment of infertility in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  7. A. sowa Roxb. (Dill), Helicters isora L. (Indian screw), and Acorus calamus L. (Sweet flag) are mixed with clarified butter to make a tablet. The tablet is advised to place intra-vaginally.
  8. Extract of A. sowa (Dill) is advised to take orally.
  9. Crystal sugar, Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), A. sowa (Dill), and Origanum vulgare (Oregano) are ground together, and converted into tablets. A tablet is advised to place intra-vaginally for 3 days.
  10. A. sowa (Dill) or Origanum vulgare (Oregano) are boiled with jaggary in water. This remedy is advised to takeorally from the 1st day of menstruation for 3 days.
  11. Equal amount of Coriandrum sativum (Coriander), Senna italica Mill (Senegal senna), Myrtus communis L. (Myrtle), A. sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), candy sugar, and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are soaked overnight in water This water is advised to be taken orally from the last day of menstruation for 3 days. Wine-dipped cotton swab is placed intra-vaginally from the last day of menstruation for 3 days.
  12. Equal amount of Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet), sowa (Dill), Trachyspermum ammi (Carom), crystal sugar, jaggery, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and candy sugar are ground together. 2 glass of water and butter are also added in it. A cup is advised to take orally thrice daily for 3 days.
  13. A. sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (Ginger),Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium),and candy sugar are boiled in water. This decoction is then sieved. Oral administration is advised early in the morning for 3 days.
  14. Equal amount of sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), and Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) are soaked in a glass of water at night and sieved in the morning. Oral administration is advised early in the morning on an empty stomach daily for 3 days.

Leucorrhea, Infertility, Strengthening of Uterus, and Dysmenorrhea

  1. Intra-vaginal tablets, prepared by grinding Pinus gerardiana Wall. ex D. Don (Pinus), dried Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut),A. sowa, candy sugar, Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce. (Fennel), Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint), sinyar*, jaggery, Acorus calamus (Sweet flag), Glycyrrhiza glabraL. (Liquorice), Quercus infectoria Olivier. (Gall oak), crystal sugar, Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate), mosfa*, Rosa indica L. (Rose), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), dakh*, and mustard oil. Tablet is advised to place intravaginally once a day for 3 days for the treatment of leucorrhea and infertility in District Jamshoro (Sindh). This remedy is also used for strengthening of uterus.
  2. 1 table spoon of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Salvia plebeia R. Brown. (Sage weed), Areca catechu (Betel nut), Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), and A. sowa are fried, and taken orally on an empty stomach for 3 days for the treatment of infertility in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  3. Anethum sowa (Dill) are boiled in some water with jaggery and this water is taken orally for 3-4 days for the treatment of infertility and amenorrhea in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).

Strengthening of Uterus and Infertility

A. sowa,Withania coagulans Dunal. (Vegetable rennet), Trigonella foenum-graecum(Fenugreek), ghora wal*, and fried Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are boiled. A glass of this decoction is taken orally for 3 days for the treatment of infertility and strengthening of uterus in District Shikarpur (Sindh).

Strengthening of Uterus

  1.  A. sowa Roxb. (Dill), Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), and Foeniculum vulgare var dulce. (Fennel) are ground, and mixed together. It is then placed intra-anally in the morning for 3-4 days.
  2. Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Areca catechu (Betel nut), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Tamarindus indicum (Tamarind), Holarrhena antidysenterica (Tellichery bark and coneru), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), A. sowa (Dill), Cannabis sativa (Marijuana), Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), and crystal sugar are separately powdered. All ingredients are then combined together and tablets are formed out of the mixture. It is advised to place tablet intra-vaginally at night for 2 week. The treatment is extended to a whole month if improvemnet is not seen.

Dysmenorrhea

  1. Burnt A. sowaand Origanum vulgare (Oregano) into ashes, and boiled in some water to make an oral extract. A cup of this extract daily with empty stomach for 6 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea and dysperunia in District Kamber (Sindh).
  2. A. sowa,Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek), Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are soaked in equal quantities in some water.It is used orally with empty stomach for 3 days during periods for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Kamber (Sindh).
  3. Intra-vaginal tablets, prepared by grinding A. sowa,Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (Indian Senna), Elettaria cardamomum (Green Cardamom), and leaves of Lallemantia royleana Benth. (Black Psyllium). The tablet is advised to place twice a day for 3 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  4. A. sowa,Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), and Amomum subulatumRoxb. (Black cardamom) are boiled in milk, and taken orally early in the morning for 5 days during periods for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  5. A. sowa,Origanum vulgare (Oregano), leaves of Azadirachta indica J. Juss. (Margose), leaves of Rhazya strictaL. (Rhazya), and jaggery are ground to make tablets. It is placed intra-vaginallyfor 3 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in Districts Jamshoro and Jacobabad (Sindh).
  6. Boiled Lallemantia royleana (Blck psyllium) leaves jiggery,and A. sowain water,and this water extract is taken orally for 3 days from first day of periods for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Shahdatkot (Sindh).
  7. A. sowa,Terminalia chubulaRetz. (Black myrobalau), and Mentha piperita (Peppermint) are soaked in some water, and this water is consumed orallyon second and third day of periodsfor the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Shikarpur (Sindh).
  8. Soaked A. sowain some water and take bath with this water for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  9. A. sowa,Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and Cannabis sativa (Marijauna) are ground,and make vaginal suppositories. It is advised to place intravaginally every night for 3-4 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  10. This remedy has two ingredients and is administered in 2 stages. First, Cuminum cyminum (Cumin) is soaked in water overnight and taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 6-7 days. sowa Roxb. (Dill) is then soaked and advised to take for further 7 days.
  11. 250 g of sowa (Dill) is soaked in water overnight and then sieved in the next morning. The extract is advised to take orally. Residues of Anethum sowa (Dill) is fried in clarified butter with wheat and sugar to make a sweet dish. Oral administration of the sweet dish is advised for 2 days during menstruation.
  12. A. sowa (Dill) is tied in a cloth and then placed in water. Unmarried women are advised to clean themselves with this water
  13. Equal amount of leaves of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), sowa (Dill), and jaggery are fried in butter oil. Some Triticum aestivum L. (Wheat) flour is added to the pan, mixed thoroughly and cooked further. This is an oral remedy and advised to take for 3 days regularly.
  14. A. sowa (Dill) is boiled in water and then crystal sugar is added in it. It is advised to take this water orally daily during menstruation for 5-6 days in winter.
  15. A. sowa (Dill) is boiled in water and then crystal sugar is added in it. It is advised to take this water orally daily during menstruation for 5-6 days in winter.
  16. Equal amount of sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander), and crystal sugar are powdered together. Vaginal suppositories are prepared from this mixture. It is advised to place suppository intra-vaginally in the morning and removed at night. The treatment should be followed for 3 days regularly.
  17. A. sowa (Dill), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), Cannabis sativa (Marijuana), Acorus calamus (Sweet flag), Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug, Terminalia chebula (Black myrobalau), Terminalia bellirica (Belliric myroblan), and zaifan wari sutti* are ground to a fine powder. Withania coagulans Dunal. (Vegetable renent), and jaggery are soaked in some water, and then sieved. This sieved water is mixed with powdered mixture and converted into vaginal suppositories. Suppository is placed intra-vaginally for 11 nights regularly.
  18. A. sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and Cuminum cyminum (Cumin) are ground to a fine powder. It is converted into vaginal suppositories. It is advised to place suppository intra-vaginally for 3 nights.
  19. Fresh leaves of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), Cannabis sativa (Marijuana), Salvia plebeia (English plebeian), sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are ground, and converted into vaginal suppositories. It is advised to place suppository intra-vaginally for 3 nights regularly.

 Amenorrhea and Dysmenrrhea

  1. A. sowa (Dill) is taken and cooked in 60 g butter oil. A glass of water and 2 table spoons wheat flour is added in it. This is known as Tringh. It is advised to take orally at night for 3 days.
  2. A. sowa (Dill), Trachyspermum ammi (Carom), crystal sugar, jaggary, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and candy sugar are mixed with butter oil. A glass of water is added in it and boiled to make a decoction. It is advised to take orally twice daily for 3 days.
  3. Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), sowa (Dill), Trachyspermum ammi (Carom), jaggary, and butter are taken. They are boiled together in 250 mL water then it is sieved. Crystal sugar is placed intra-vaginally for 3 days. It is advised to take 1 cup orally daily at night for 3 days.
  4. A. sowa (Dill), Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet), and Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) are cooked in 100 g butter. Small amount of jaggary and 1 glass water is added in it. It is advised to take orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 3 days.
  5. 2 table spoons ground Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek), sowa (Dill), and Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) are fried in 50 mL butter oil, and mixed with butter to make remedy. It is advised to take orally once daily in the morning for 3 days.
  6. A. sowa (Dill) is soaked in water at night. It is ground in the morning. Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) and butter is added in it, and then boiled. It is advised to use this water orally once daily in the morning for 3 days.
  7. Fresh and washed leaves of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium) and sowa (Dill) are boiled in 500 mL water. It is advised to take orally 1 cup twice daily in the morning for 5-6 days.

 Pelvic inflammatory diseases and Dyspareunia

Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) and A. sowaare ground to make vaginal tablets that are used for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory diseases and dyspareunia in District Shikarpur (Sindh).

Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases, Irregular Menses, Infertility, Dysperunia and Fibroid Uterus

Ground A. sowa,Origanum vulgare (Oregano), and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) to make vaginal suppositories. Dip suppositories in butter oil and placed intra-vaginally for 3-4 days for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory diseases in District Jacobabad (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of fibroid uterus as well as irregular menses in same District.

Dysmenorrhea, Leucorrhea, and Post Partum Hemorrhage

Ground Areca catechu (Betel nut), Apium graveolens L. (Celery), Embelia ribes Burm. f. (False black pepper), Anethum sowa(Dill), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and bark of Punica granatum (Pomegranate) to obtain a paste, a tablespoon of this pastetaken orally once a day for 4 days for the treatment of dysmenorrheal, leucorrhea, and post partum hemorrhage in District Kamber (Sindh). If not cured then continue for 5-8 days.

Dysmenorrhea, Infertility, and Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases

Equal quantities of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), A. sowa,Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Tamarindus indicaL. (Tamarind), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Acorus calamus (Sweet flag), Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek), mosfai*, red earth, Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), gondo*, Gossypium arboreumL. (Cotton), and Mentha piperita (Peppermint) are mashed to makevaginal suppositories. It is advised to place intra-vaginally for 6 nights regularly for the treatment of infertility, pelvic inflammatory diseases, and dysmenorrhea in District Kamber (Sindh).

Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases

  1. Ground A. sowaand Origanum vulgare (Oregano) are used for the preparation of vaginal suppositories. It is advised to place intra-vaginally in the morning and removed at night for 5-7 days for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory diseases in Districts Tando Muhammad Khan and Ghotki (Sindh).
  2. Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), A. sowa,tapashir*, and white antimony, are ground to make a powder, and dipped in glycerine. It is placed intra-vaginally at night for 6-7 days for shrinking abdominal size as well as for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory diseases in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  3. Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Trachyspermum ammi L. (Carom), Onosma hispidaWall. (Rattan jot), A. sowa,Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug, and rock salt in equal amounts are ground to make vaginal tablets that are used for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory diseases in District Shikarpur (Sindh).
  4. Cicer arietinumL. (Chickpea), A. sowa,Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Acorus calamus (Sweet flag), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Salvia plebeian (Sage weed), sonu ghero, Citrullus colocynthis(L.) Schrad.(Bitter apple), Holarrhena antidysenterica (Tellichery bark and coneru), mosfai, and red earth are ground in equal quantities to make vaginal suppositories, and placed intra-vaginally at night for 10 days regularlyfor the treatment of pelvic inflammatory diseases in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  5. Equal quantities of fresh leaves Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), A. sowa,and Origanum vulgare (Oregano) are boiled in water, and taken orally thrice a day for 3 days for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory diseases in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Lactation

  1. Soaked Triticum aestivum (Wheat) and A. sowain butter oil are mixed with water, and sugar. The remedy is consumed orally for improving lactation in District Thatta (Sindh).
  2. Ground A. sowaand sugar are mixed, and taken orally for improving lactation in District Umerkot (Sindh).
  3. Triticum aestivum (Wheat), sugar, Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), and Anethum sowa (Dill) are first ground, and then fried in butter fat to make a paste. Oral administration is advised for 3 days.

Leucorrhea

  1. A. sowapowder is used to prepare vaginal suppositories and advised to place thrice a day for 3 days for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Umerkot (Sindh).
  2. A. sowaand Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are mashed, and dipped in mixture of warm black glycerin and mashed leaves of Salvadora oleiodesDecne. (Trooth brush), to make suppositories and placed intra-vaginally for 3 days for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  3. Ground A. sowa,Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Cannabis sativa (Marijuana), Areca catechu (Betel nut), and Quercus infectoria (Gall oak) in equal quantities, and prepare vaginal suppositories for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Shahdatkot (Sindh).
  4. A. sowa,Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Areca catechu (Betel nut), and Tamarindus indica(Tamarind) are taken in equal quantities, and mashed to make a small tablets taken orally twice a day for 5 daysfor the treatment of leucorrhea in District Kamber (Sindh).
  5. Equal quantities of A. sowa,Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Acorus calamus (Sweet flag), and Elettaria cardamomum(Green cardamom) are mashed and prepare small oral tablets for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh). In this remedy, Cannabis sativa (Marijuana) is added to prepare tablets. A tablet is placed intra-vaginally daily for 4 nights for same pourpose.
  6. Equal amount of ground Lallemantia royleana Benth. (Black psyllium), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), A. sowa Roxb. (Dill), and Origanum vulgare (Oregano) are mixed together, and powdered. Jaggery is added in butter and integrated into the powdered mixture. Vaginal suppositories are prepared from this mixture. A suppository is advised to place intra-vaginally for 4 nights regularly.
  7. A. sowa (Dill) is placed in a white cloth and mashed to make a poultice. The poultice is advised to place intra-vaginally.
  8. A. sowa (Dill) is boiled in some water and then sieved. Oral administration is advised for 3 months.
  9. A. sowa (Dill) and Origanum vulgare (Oregano) are ground, and then mixed with some water. It is then converted into suppositories. A suppository is advised to place intra-vaginally for 4 nights.
  10. Equal amounts of Lallemantia royleana (Black psylium), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Acorus calamus (Sweet flag), Cannabis sativa (Marijuana), and sowa (Dill) are ground, and then mixed with some water to make tablet. A tablet is advised to place intra-vaginally for 10 days in the morning and removed at night.

Fibroid Uterus

  1. A. sowa,Acorus calamus (Sweet flag), crystal sugar, leaves of Azadirachta indica J. Juss.(Margose), bulb of Allium cepa L.(Onion) are burnt into ashes, and then mixed with butter oil to make intra-vaginal tablets for the treatment of fibroid uterus in District Thatta (Sindh).
  2. Equal amounts of A. sowaand Origanum vulgare (Oregano),and 3-4 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are mashed to make a powder, and then boiled in some water. Powder is taken orally by unmarried women while intra-vaginal tablets prepared from this powder, are used by married women for the treatment of fibroid uterus in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Infertility and Fibroid Uterus

A. sowa,Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), some flowers of Rosa indicaL.(Rose), jaggery, shar* (a woody form), and Cassia angustifolia (Indian senna) leaves are boiled in equal quantities in water.This water is sieved and half cup of the extractconsumed orally with empty stomach for a weekdaily for the treatment of infertility, and fibroid uterus in District Jamshoro (Sindh).

Cervical swelling, Amenorrhea, Dysmenorrhea, and Menorrhagia

A. sowa,Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium) leaves, and jaggery in equal quantities are fried in butter oil, and mixed with some Triticum aestivum (Wheat) flour. The paste is taken orally for 3 days for the treatment of cervical swelling, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and menorrhagia in District Khairpur (Sindh).

Amenorrhea, Infertility, and Shrinking Abdomen Size after Childbirth

A. sowa,Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), flowers of Rosa indica (Rose), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Mentha piperita (Peppermint) leaves, kari dakh*, and Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet) are boiled in water.This decoction is taken orally for few days for the treatment of amenorrhea, infertility as well as for shrinking abdominal size after childbirth in District Sukkur (Sindh).

Amenorrhea

  1. Fresh and washed leaves of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium) and A. sowaare boiled in 500 mL water to make an oral extract, used for the treatment of amenorrhea in District Kamber (Sindh).
  2. Burnt Phoenix dactylifera L.(Dates) leaves into ashes and mixed with ground Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), A. sowa,Origanum vulgare (Oregano), and jaggery.This mixture is used to prepare tablets. A tablet is advised to place itra-vaginally once a day for 2 days for the treatment of amenorrhea in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
  3. A. sowa,Origanum vulgare (Oregano), and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are ground to prepare vaginal suppositories. It is advised to placeintra-vaginally for 3 days regularly for the treatment of amenorrhea as well as menorrhagia in District Khairpur (Sindh).
  4. Boiled A. sowaand jaggery in some water, and taken orally for the treatment of amenorrhea in Districts Khairpur, Shaheed Benazirabad, and Umerkot (Sindh).
  5. Jaggery, Areca catechu (Betel nut), and A. sowa Roxb. (Dill) are boiled. It is advised to take orally for first 3-4 days of menstruation.
  6. A. sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), 3-4 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris L. (French beans), Tamarindus indicum L. (Tamarind), Pinus gerardiana Wall.ex D. Don (Pinus), Pistacia vera L. (Pistachio), Juglans regia L. (Walnut), Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Piper nigrum L. (Black pepper), Papaver somniferum L. (Opium), Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug, and Triticum aestivum (Wheat) are mixed with butter oil, and then boiled in some water till it dried. It is advised to take orally 1 table spoon daily in morning on an empty stomach for 3 days.

Dilation and Curettage after Abortion, and Amenorrhea

Small amount of A. sowa,Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek), leaves of Mentha piperita (Peppermint), and Origanum vulgare (Oregano) are crushed, and boiled in water to make a decoction, used for the treatment of amenorrhea in District Naushahro Feroze (Sindh). It is also used for dilation and curettage in same District. Decoction is also taken orally for scanty menses in District Kamber (Sindh).

 Scanty Menses and Miscarriage

A. sowaare soaked in some water and ground after few hours. Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), butter, jaggery, and ground A. sowaare boiled to make decoction. It is taken orally early in the morning for 3 days for scanty menses in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Scanty Menses

  1. Equal quantity of bark of Acacia nilotica Willd. (Kikar), Trachyspermum ammi L. (Carom), Withania coagulans Dunal. (Vegetable rennet), A. sowa Roxb. (Dill), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), and jaggary are soaked in water at night. In the morning, this water is seived and boiled. Small amount of clarified butter and wheat flour is added. It is advised to takehalf glass of the decoction orally in the morning on an empty stoamch for 3 days.
  2. 20 g of Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), A. sowa (Dill),jaggary, Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug, and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are taken, and cooked it in 60 g butter. Jaggary is soaked in water. It is added in butter. This is known as Tringh. It is advised to take orally at night for 3 days.
  3. A. sowa (Dill), Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet), and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek) are taken. It is cooked in 100 g butter. Small amount of jaggary and 1 glass of water is added in it.It is advised to take orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 3 days.
  4. Equal amount of sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium),Cassia angustifolia (Indian senna), Butea frondosa Roxb. ex. Willd. (Palash), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), sufaid wal*, kali wal*, and Tamarindus indicum L. (Tamrind) are soaked in water at night. In the morning, it is seived. It is advised to take orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 5 dyas regularly.

Abortion

A. sowa and Trachyspermum ammi (Carom) are boiled in water, and then jaggery is added. It is taken orally for 3-4 days for inducing abortion in District Khairpur (Sindh).

Abortion and Amenorrhea

  1. A. sowa Roxb. (Dill,) is boiled in water and then sieved. This decoction is orally administered for 1-3 days for abortion (in winter season). It is also recommended to stop it use when period starts. 2-3 spoons of this decoction is advised to take orally for 5-6 days for the treatment of ammenorrhea.
  2. A. sowa (Dill) is soaked in water and then sieved. This extract is taken orally for 3 days till period starts.

Expulsion of Umbilical Cord and Dysmenorrhea

A. sowa,Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Cuminum cyminum L.(Cumin), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), and Piper nigrum (Black pepper) are fried in butter.It is taken orally with water for expulsion of umbilical cord in District Sukkur (Sindh).This remedy is also prescribed for the treatment of dysmenorrhea.

Expulsion of Umbilical Cord

  1. Ground grains of Punica granatum (Pomegranate), Apium graveolens (Celery), Embelia ribes (False black pepper), Lallemantia royleana(Black psyllium), Quercus infectoria(Gall oak), Areca catechu (Betel nut), and sowain equal amounts to obtain a fine powder. The powder is mixed with wine and intra-vaginal tablets are prepared from it for the expulsion of umbilical cord in District Khairpur (Sindh).
  2. A. sowa Roxb. (Dill) and Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano) are cooked in butter oil. It is advised to take orally for 3 days regularly.
  3. Equal amount of powdered grains of Punica granatum (Pomegranate), Apium graveolens (Celery), Embelia ribes (False black pepper), Lallemantia royleana Benth. (Black psyllium), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Areca catechu (Betel nut), and A. sowa Roxb. (Dill) are taken. Then wine is added in this and converted into balls like marbles. It is advised to place the ball intra- vaginally for 6-7 days regularly.

Shrinking of Abdominal Size after Childbirth and Conceiving Male Child

Ground Apium graveolens (Celery), Embelia ribes (False black pepper), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), A. sowa,and candy sugar to make pellets. A pellet dipped in butter placed intra-anally during menstruationfor shrinking abdominal size as well as for conceiving male child in District Naushahro Feroze (Sindh).

Shrinking of Abdominal Size after Childbirth

Dipped cotton swab in black glycerine and then in powder mixture of A. sowa,and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom). It is placed intra-vaginally for 3 days regularly for shrinking abdominal size after childbirth in District Sukkur (Sindh).

 Shrinking of Abdominal Size and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)

Ground A. sowaand Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) to make vaginal suppository, and placed intra-vaginally at night for 3-4 days for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. The remedy is also used for shrinking abdominal size after childbirth for 7 days in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Mennorhagia

  1. A. sowa,Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Areca catechu (Betel nut), and Origanum vulgare (Oregano) are crushed into powder form, and taken orally for 3 days for the treatment of menorrhagia in District Shikarpur (Sindh).
  2. A. sowa,Myrtus communis L.(Myrtle), 2-3 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), and crystal sugar are boiled in water.The decoction is consumed orally twice a day for 12-15 days for the treatment of menorrhagia in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  3. Equal amount of A. sowa,Areca catechu (Betel nut), Juniperus communis L.(Juniper), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are soaked in water.The extract is used orally in the morning with empty stomach for 3 days for the treatment of menorrhagia in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
  4. A. sowaand Origanum vulgare (Oregano) are soaked in water, and then jaggery is added. It is taken orally for the treatment of menorrhagia in District Jamshoro (Sindh).

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) and Vaginal Puritus

A. sowaare boiled in some water and used this water for taking bath for the treatment of sexual transmitted diseases (STD) in the Districts Shikarpur and Khairpur (Sindh).

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)

Elettaria cardamomum (Green cradamom), A. sowa (Dill), Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug are mashed together, and mixed with clarified butter. Small tablets are formed out of this mixture. The tablet is advised to place intra-vaginally at night for 3 days.

Retroverty Uterus

Ground Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), A. sowa Roxb. (Dill), slug Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint), and jaggary is mixed with mustard oil, and converted into tablet form. It is advised to place the tablet intra-vaginally once daily for 3 days.

Reduce Pain after Delivery

Equal amount of ground Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Anthum sowa Roxb. (Dill), and Trachyspermum ammi L. (Carom) are mixed with a pinch of rock salt to obtain a tablet form. It is advised to place tablet intra-vaginally once daily for 3 days.

Dyspareunia

  1. A. sowaand Elettaria cardamomum (Green Cardamom) are ground, and made intra-vaginal tablets. These tablets are used for the treatment of dyspareunia in District Shikarpur (Sindh).
  2. Equal amount of A. sowa, Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Embelia robusta (Embelia), Acorus calamus (Sweet Flag), Elettaria cardamomum (Green Cardamom), and Cannabis sativa(Marijuana) are ground, and mixed with butter to make intra-vaginal tablets that is used for the treatment of dyspareunia in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  3. A. sowa (Dill) is burnt to ash and then placed on lady’s head for the treatment of dysmenorrhea and pelvic inflammatory diseases.
  4. Powdered Cannabis sativa (Marijauna), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), A. sowa (Dill), and Acorus calamus (Sweet flag)aremixed with water and converted into tablet form. It is advised to place the tablet intra-vaginally in the morning and removed at night for 6-7 days regularly.
  5. Equal amount of powdered A. sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Embelia robusta (Embelia), Acorus calamus (Sweet flag),Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and Cannabis sativa (Marijauna) are mixed with some butter to make small tablet. It is then tied in a cotton cloth to make suppositories. It is advised to place tied cloth intra-vaginally for the treatment of dyspareunia in the District Kashmore (Sindh).

Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases, Dyspareunia, and Dysmenorrhea

Burnt A. sowaand Origanum vulgare (Oregano) together and boiled to make a decoction that are taken orally in the morning for 5-7 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea as well as dyspareunia in District Kamber (Sindh). Oral extract are also used for pelvic inflammatory diseases in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Post Partum Hemorrhage, Leucorrhea, and Dysmenorrhea

Ground A. sowa,Areca catechu (Betel nut), Apium graveolens (Celery), Embelia ribes (False black pepper), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and bark of Punica granatum (Pomegranate) to obtain a paste, and taken orally twice a day for 4-5 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Kamber (Sindh). This remedy is also prescribed for leucorrhea as well as post partum hemorrhage in the same District.

Conceiving Male Child

Equal quantities of A. sowa,Holarrhena antidysenterica L.(Tellichery bark and coneru), Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Juglans regia L.(Walnut), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Cassia absus L.(Pig’s senna), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and Pistacia vera L.(Pistachio) are ground, and prepare intra-anal tablets for conceiving male child in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Prolapsed Uterus

  1. Powdered grains of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), A. sowa,Cicer arietinum(Chickpeas), and burnt camel bones are mixed together.It is tied in cloth to make poultice and placed intra-vaginally for 7 nights regularly for the treatment of prolapsed uterus in District Khairpur (Sindh).
  2. Intra-anal suppositories of ground A. sowaare usedfor the treatment of prolapsed uterus in District Shikarpur (Sindh).
  3. 100 g of each Origanum vulgare (Oregano), A. sowa,and Quercus infectoria (Gall oak) are ground into paste,to makesuppositories which are placed intra-vaginally for 3 days for the treatment of prolapsed uterus and amenorrhea in District Jamshoro (Sindh).

Infertility, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Backache during Menstruation, Expulsion of umbilical cord after Delivery, Shrinking of Abdominal Size after Childbirth, Menorrhagia, and Contraceptive

Little bit of rock sugar, a pinch of rock salt, 10-12 gA. sowa,10 gSalvia plebeia(English plebeian), 10 g kahri*, 10 gEmbelia ribes (False black pepper), 5 gOriganum vulgare (Oregano), 10 gApium graveolens (Celery), 1 whole Areca catechu (Betel nut), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), 5-8 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), 2-3 Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), 2 slug of Mentha piperita (Peppermint), and Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium) are powdered, and taken orally for the treatment of infertility in District Jamshoro (Sindh). In the same District, it is also prescribed to make suppositories which are placed intra-vaginally twice a day for 7 days for reducing backache during menstruation. For expulsion of umbilical cord first give jaggery after two hours of delivery and then start the treatment.The treatment is also used for shrinking of abdominal size after childbirth, as well as contraceptive agent in District Jamshoro (Sindh). Addition of dried and crushed peel of Punica granatum (Pomegranate) in this powder is helpful for the treatment of menorrhagia in District Jamshoro (Sindh). Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) powder is added in the prepared powder and taken orally for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases in same District.

Improvement of Health after Childbirth and Dysmenorrhea

Equal amount of A. sowa,Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Cassia angustifolia (Indian senna), and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are ground to make intra-vaginal tablet that are used for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh). It is also used for improvement of health after childbirth in same District.

Contraception

A. sowa Roxb. (Dill), Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), rock salt, glycerin, crystal sugar, honey, and Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint) slug are ground together, and mixed with mustard oil. It is then converted into tablets. These tablets is advised to place intra-vaginally at night for 6-7 days.

 Labor Pain

  1. A tablespoon of sowa Roxb. (Dill), 3-4 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Cuminum cyminum L. (Cumin), and 2 Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slugs are fried in butter oil and then added in a glass of water, jaggery and wheat. This water is taken orally at the time of delivery.
  2. 3-4 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris L. (French bean), Tamarindus indicum L. (Tamarind), Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Cannabis sativa L. (Marijuana), Aloe vera (L.)Burm. f. (Aloe vera), and a tablespoon of salt are ground. It is then placed in a clay pot at night. It is then tied in cotton cloth in the morning and placed intra-vaginally for inducing labor pain in the District Kashmore (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

Apiol, o-cymene, α-thujene, β-phellandrene, 6,6-dimethyl-2-(3-oxobutyl) bicycle heptan-3-one, exo-2-hydroxycineol, limonene, 3-isopropyl-4-methyl-1-pentyn-3-ol, myristicine and dihydroumbellulonare some of the compounds isolated from A. sowa2. Volatile components of dill seeds and herb include carvone, α-phellandrene, limonene, dill ether, and myristicin. Seeds also contain coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and steroids3.

Chemical Structure:

anethum-sowa-roxb-st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

A. sowa increases lactation, prevents early pregnancy after birth4, used in amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea5, disease of gastrointestinal tract, kidney and urinary tract6, internal spasm, cold, cough, flu remedies, digestive and menstrual disorder7.

Phytochemical analysis of A. sowahave indicated the presence of steroid, flavonoid and saponins which is responsible for its haematological, hypoglycemic3,antifungal6, antioxidant, antiamylase, cytotoxic8, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic9,aphrodisiac,cardioprotective, antihyperlipidaemic, antihypercholesterolaemic, andanticonvulsant activities10.

REFERENCES

  • http://ayurvedicmedicinalplants.com/plants/1309.html.
  • Moshfekus, Saleh-e-In M., Sultanaa, A., and Husainb, M. (2010). Chemical Constituents of Essential Oil from Anethum sowa Herb (Leaf and Stem) Growing in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 45(2),173-176.
  • Mishra, N. (2013). Haematological and Hypoglycemic Potential Anethum graveolens Seeds Extract in Normal and Diabetic Swiss Albino Mice. Veterinary World,6(8), 502-507.
  • home-rededies-guide.com/herbs/dill.html.
  • Prajapati, N. D. (2003). A Handbook of Medicinal Plants, 47, Agrobios, Jodhpur, India.
  • Khare, C.P. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants, pg. 51, Springer Science Publishers, New York, US.
  • Bhimwal, R., Aggrawal, N., Nagauri, B. P., Sharma, M. C., Kumar, P., Sharma, A. K., and Kachhawa, J. B. S. (2009). Review on Anethum sowa: An Indian Medicinal Plant. International Journal of Chemical Sciences, 7(1), 435-441.
  • Kumar, V.R. (2011).In-Vitro Anti-Oxidant, Anti-Amylase, Anti-Arthritic, and Cytotoxic Activity of Important Commonly Used Green Leafy Vegetables. International Journal of Pharmatechnology Research,3(4).
  • Nahida, S. H., and Siddiqui, A. N. (2012). Quality Standards and Safety Profile of a Unani Formulation, Habb-e-Suranjan. International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 3(3).
  • http://www.sahul.com/eherb-Soya-#Pharmacology.

Apium graveolens L.

Botanical Name:             Apium graveolens L.apium-graveolens-l

Kingdom:                      Plantae

Order:                           Apiales

Family:                         Apiaceae

Genus:                          Apium

Local Name:                  Ajmood

Sindhi Name:                 Waowal

English Name:               Celery

Parts Used:                    Seeds

Description

Apium graveolens L. is glabrous and branched. Leaves are pinnate. Leaflets are oval to obovate and 3-lobed. Peduncle is a few centimeters in length or entirely lacking. Rays are about 2-10. Fruitsare ovoid to sub orbicular, and ridges are prominent1.

Occurrences

A. graveolensis found throughout Europe, the Mediterranean, China, and India. In Pakistan,it grows on wet and saline soils, and grown by seed in the nursery. It is found in gilgit, kurram valley, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, Harnai, Kalat, Baltistan, Parachinar, and Khuzdar.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Dysmenorrhea

Apium graveolens (Celery), Embelia ribes (False black pepper), Myristica fragrans (Nutmeg), Cocos nucifera (Coconut), leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem), and paryo* are powdered, and mixed with some water to make small tablets. It is advised to place tablet intra-vaginally daily in the morning for 3-4 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea inthe District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Dysmenorrhea, Leucorrhea, and Post Partum Hemorrhage

Ground Areca catechu L.(Betel nut), Apium graveolens L.(Celery), Embelia ribes Burm. f. (False black pepper), Anethum sowa Roxb. (Dill), Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Green cardamom), and bark of Punica granatum L.(Pomegranate) to obtain a paste, and taken orally twice a day for 4-5 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Kamber (Sindh). This oral remedy is also prescribed for leucorrhea as well as post partum hemorrhage in the same District.

Expulsion of Umbilical Cord after Childbirth, Contraception, Infertility, Backache during Menstruation, and Shrinking of Abdominal Size after Child Birth

Little bit of rock sugar, a pinch of rock salt, 10 gSalvia plebeian R. Brown. (English plebeian), 10 g kahri*, 10 gEmbelia ribes (False black pepper), 5 gOriganum vulgareL.(Oregano), 10 gA. graveolens, 1 whole Areca catechu (Betel nut), Quercus infectoriaOlivier. (Gall oak), 10-12g Anethum sowa (Dill), 5-8 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), 2-3 Amomum subulatum Roxb.(Black cardamom), 2 slug of Mentha piperita (Peppermint) are crushed to obtain a powder form. This powder is taken orally twice a day for 5 daysfor the treatment of infertility and backache during menstruation. It is also used for contraceptive purposes, expulsion of umbilical cord after childbirth, and shrinking of abdominal size after childbirth in District Jamshoro (Sindh). In this powder, dried and crushed peel of Punica granatum (Pomegranate) can be added, and considered for the treatment of menorrhagia in District Jamshoro (Sindh). Addition of Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce. (Fennel) to above prepare powder is recommended for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases in District Jamshoro (Sindh).

Expulsion of Umbilical Cord

  1. Ground grains of Punica granatum (Pomegranate), A. graveolens, Embelia ribes (False black pepper), Lallemantia royleanaBenth. (Black psyllium), Quercus infectoria(Gall oak), Areca catechu (Betel nut), and Anethum sowa (Dill) in equal quantities to obtain a fine powder. The powder is mixed with wine o marble size tablet and placed intra-vaginally for 6-7 days for the expulsion of umbilical cord in District Khairpur (Sindh).
  2. Areca catechu (Betel nut), Quercus infectoria(Gall oak), Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Liquorice), Embelia ribes (False black pepper), A. graveolens, Butea frondosa Roxb. ex. Willd(Palash), and jaggery are ground to make paste.It is placed intra-vaginally once daily for 6 days for the expulsion of umbilical cord in District Khairpur (Sindh).

Leucorrhea, Prolapsed uterus, and Prevention of Miscarriage

Equal quantities of A. graveolens, Embelia ribes (False black pepper), Acorus calamus (Sweet flag), and jaggery are ground into a powder form.It is used to preparevaginal suppositories and placed intra-vaginally for 3 days for the treatment of leucorrhea, prolapsed uterus, and for the prevention of abortion in District Khairpur (Sindh).

Cervical Swelling

Vaginal suppositories, prepared by grinding A. graveolens, Embelia ribes (False black pepper), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Tamarindus indica(Tamarind), and jiggery. It is advised to place intra-vaginally for 3 days for the treatment of cervical swelling in District Khairpur (Sindh).

Infertility, Backache, and Expulsion of Umbilical Cord

Equal quantities of A. graveolens, Embelia ribes (False black pepper), Tamarindus indica(Tamarind), Trachyspermum ammi L. (Carom), waho bhanbho*, Quercus infectoria(Gall oak), Terminalia bellirica(Gaertn.) Roxb.(Belliric myrobalau), Salvia plebeia(English plebeian), reh*, Symplocos racemosa (Lodh), slug of Mentha piperita (Peppermint), and jaggery are ground to obtain a paste.It is used orally for expulsion of umbilical cord in District Khairpur (Sindh). In the same District, same remedy is used orally for the treatment of infertility as well as its intra-vaginal tablets are prescribed for 3 days for backache during menstruation.

Infertility and Dyspareunia

Equal quantities of A. graveolens, Embelia ribes (False black pepper),Morus acidosa Griff. (Mulberry), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak),Salvia plebeian (English plebeian), rock sugar, and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are powdered.It istakenorally ½ tablespoon for 3 days as periods start for the treatment of infertility and dyspareunia in District Matiari (Sindh).

Backache, Shrinking of Abdominal Size, and Expulsion of Umbilical Cord

Equal quantities of A. graveolens, Embelia ribes (False black pepper), Tamarindus indica(Tamarind), Holarrhena antidysenterica L. (Tellichery bark and coneru), mosfa*, rock salt, rock sugar, and jaggery are ground into a powder form. This powder is mixed with butter to make tablets and advised to place intravaginally for 11 days after 3 days of delivery for expulsion of umbilical cord in District Khairpur (Sindh). These tablets are also used for shrinking the abdominal size as well as backache during menstruation in same District.

Shrinking of Abdominal Size and Conceive Male Child

Ground A. graveolens, Embelia ribes (False black pepper), Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), and candy sugar to make pellets. It is dipped in butter and placed intra-anally for shrinking the abdominal size after childbirth as well as for conceiving male child in District Naushahro Feroze (Sindh).

Leucorrhea

Ground A. graveolensand Embelia ribes (False black pepper) to obtain a paste, and used orally twice a day for a week for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).

Backache during Menstruation

  1. Ground A. graveolens, Embelia ribes (False black pepper), and Acacia niloticaL. Willd. (Kikar) to obtain a paste.It is used orally twice a day for 4-5 days for reducing backache during menstruation in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).
  2. Ground A. graveolens, Embelia ribes (False black pepper), Morus acidosa (Mulberry), Quercus infectoria(Gall oak),rock sugar, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Areca catechu (Betel nut), Foeniculum vulgarevar. dulce. (Fennel), slug of Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint), and crystal sugar to make fine powder. It is used orally 1 tablespoon twice a day for 5-7 day for reducing backache during menstruation and pregnancy in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).

Prolapsed Uterus

Vaginal suppositories, prepared by grindingA. graveolens, Embelia ribes (False black pepper), Lallemantia royleana Benth. (Black psyllium), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), and Cannabis sativa L. (Marijuana), used intra-vaginally once a day for 4 days after periods for the treatment of prolapsed uterus in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

Apium graveolensL. seed contains carbohydrates, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, phenols, and furocoumarins. Furocoumarins included celerin, bergapten, apiumoside, apiumetin, apigravrin, osthenol, isopimpinellin, isoimperatorin, celereoside, and 5- and 8-hydroxy methoxypsoralen. Phenols include graveobioside A and B, apiin, apigenin, isoquercitrin, tannins, and phytic acid2. Celery seeds, stems, and leaves contain selenine, limonene , β-pinene, camphene, cymene, α-thuyene, α-pinene, β-phellendrene, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, sabinene terpinolene, myristicic, santalol, β-eudesmol, α-eudesmol, sedanenolide, 3-n-butyl phthalide, and phthalide. Methoxsalen (8-methoxypsoralen) and 5-methoxypsoralen are present in celery tuber9. Celery is rich source of β-carotene and folic acid3.

Chemical Structure:

apium-graveolens-l-st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

A. graveolens is used for relieving joint pain associated with gout and arthritis, painful eye, skin diseases, liver and spleen disease, chronic fever, bronchial asthma, malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, and as an emmenagogue. It is also used for treating hysteria, nervousness, headache, weight loss, loss of appetite, exhaustion4, urinary tract inflammation5, primary dysmenorrhea6, ovary problems7, gynecological diseases such as leucorrhea, menopause, irregular periods, dysmenorrhea8, emmanogogue5,8, arthritis, and insect bite9.

Pharmacological studies showed that A. graveolensexerts larvicidal,cardiovascular, hypolipidemic, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory,antimicrobial,antihelminthic, and slightly adulticidal activities. Apigenin from A. graveolensexhibited potent antiplatelet activity2. Seeds extract possessed antihepatotoxic, nematocidal9,and antihyperglycemic activities10.

REFERENCES

  • Flora of Pakistan: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=200015400
  • Al-Snafi, A. E. (2014). The Pharmacology of Apium graveolens – A Review. International Journal for Pharmaceutical Research Scholars,3(1), 671-677.
  • Asif, H. M. (2011). Monograph of Apium graveolens Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5(8), 1494-1496.
  • http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-882-celery.aspx?activeingredientid=882&activeingredientname=celery
  • Khare, C.P. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants, 56, Springer Science Publishers, New York. USA.
  • Nahid, K., Fariborz, M., Ataolah, G., and Solokian, S. (2009). Journal of Midwifery andWomen’s health, 54(5), 401-4. Journal code: 100909407.E-ISSN: 1 542-2011.
  • Lee, K. R. (2004). Republic of Korean Kongkae Taeho Kongbo, KR 2004107854 A Patent.
  • Parjapati, N. D. (2003). A Handbook of Medicinal Plants, Jodhpur, India: Agrobios.
  • Sultanpur, C. M., and Vasanthkumar, R. (2010). Pharmacology Online, 824-831, University of Salerno, Department of Pharmacology, Government College of Pharmacy, Bangalore, India.
  • Jabbar, A. A., and Al-Shihmani, B. A. K. (2013).Antihyperglycaemic and Pancreatic Regenerative Effect of N-Butanol Extract of Celery (Apium graveolens) Seed in STZ-Induced Diabetic Male Rats,Suez Canal Veterinary Medicine Journal, XVIII(1),73-83.

Arachis hypogaea L.

Botanical name:          Arachis hypogaea L.arachis-hypogaea-ljpg

Kingdom:                      Plantae

Order:                           Fabales

Family:                         Fabaceae

Genus:                          Arachis

Local name:                   Mong phali

Sindhi name:                 Mugera

English name:                Peanut

Part used:                      Fruit

Description

Arachis hypogaea L. is an annualherb, grows up to 30 to 50 cm tall. Leaves are opposite and pinnate with four leaflets. Flower is pea-shaped having reddish veins. Stalk of the flower elongates after pollination, causing it to bend. Stalk grows continuously; pushes the ovary underground where the mature fruits (the peanuts) develops. Pods are 3 to 7 centimeters long, containing 1 to 4 seeds1.

Occurrence

A. hypogaea is probably originally a native of Brazil. China, India, U.S, Nigeria, Indonesia, Burma, Sudan, Argentina, Senegal, Greece, and Vietnam are the leading producer of peanuts. In Pakistan, it is commonly cultivated in many parts of the country especially in northern Punjab.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Lactation

A. hypogaea L. (Peanuts) is advised to take orally for the treatment of lactation in the District Kashmore (Sindh).

Leucorrhea

Ground Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut), candy sugar, Prunus amygdalus Batsch. (Almond), Pistacia vera L. (Pistachio), Arachis hypogaea L. (Peanut), semi groundTriticum aestivum L. (Wheat), Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate), and Areca catechu L. (Betel nut) in equal amounts, and 2 kg of butter is added in it. It is taken orally in the morning with empty stomach for 12 days if symptoms persist then continue for 40 days for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Infertility

A. hypogaea, Juglans regia (Walnut), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), crystal sugar, Pinus gerardiana Wall. ex D. Don. (Pinus), Pistacia vera (Pistachio), and Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander) are ground to obtain a fine powder. Soaked vegetable rennet are first sieved, and then boiled. Powder, 2 table spoons of wheat flour, and small amount of butter oil are added in boiling vegetable rennet. A glass of this decoction is taken orallyin morning with empty stomach for 3 days for the treatment of infertility in District Kashmore (Sindh).

 Chemical  Constituents

The major constituents of the plant are acids. These includes arachidic acid, aspartic acid, behenic acid, chlorogenic acid, stearic acid, gadoleic acid, gentisic acid, lauric acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, p-coumaric acid, palmitic acids, and caprylic acids. Flavonoids, such as quercetin and rutin, are also present in the plant. Seeds contain arachin, cellulose, lecithin, fats, valine, ascorbic acid, palmitoleic acid, sodium and calcium. β-Carotene, ascorbic acids, calcium, and vitamins are found in leaves6. Amino acids, minerals, and vitamins are found in different parts of the plant6.

Chemical Structure:

arachis-hypogaea-l-st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

The oil serves as a vehicle for injection2.Kernels used for thetreatment of hemophiliacs3.Seeds are useful in agalactia, diarrhea, and general debility4.Fruit and oil is astringent to the bowels5.Pod acts as a galactagogue, and can be used as eye-drops to treat conjunctivis. Eye-drops, prepared from the leaves are used to treat eye injuries and cataract. Macerations of the seed coats and shells are applied against ophthalmia. Leaves are used to treat infertility7.

A. hypogaea shows various pharmacological activities. These include antimicrobial, antifungal, antihypertension, antimutagenic, antiproliferative, cardiovascular, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and amoebicidal activities. Resveratrol, one of the constituents of plant, is reported to exhibit several activities such as anticancer, antiviral, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and neuroprotective effects.Peanut can cause allergy, even deaths from food allergy6.

REFERENCES

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peanut
  2. Bhattacharje, S. K. (2004). Hand Book of Medicinal Plants, 37. Jain, S., Pointer Publisher, Jaipur, India.
  3. Khare, C.P. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants, Springer Science Publisher, New Delhi, India.
  4. Pullaiah, T. (2006). Encyclopaedia of World Medicinal Plants, 1, 191. Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.
  5. Baquar, S. R. (1989). Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Pakistan, 32-33. Printas, Karachi, Pakistan.
  6. Geetha, K., Ramarao, N. and Kiran, S, R. (2013).An Overview on Arachis hypogaea International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research, 4(12), 4508-4518.
  7. http://database.prota.org/PROTAhtml/Arachis%20hypogaea_En.htm

Areca catechu L.

Botanical Name:         Areca catechu L.areca-catechu-l

Kingdom:                      Plantae

Order:                           Arecales

Family:                         Arecaceae

Genus:                          Areca

Local Name:                  Supari, Phiki chaliya

Sindhi Name:                 Supari, Kini supari, Tail supari

English Name:               Betel nuts, Areca nuts

Part Used:                     Fruit andSeeds

Description

Areca catechu L. is a solitary palm that grows up to 9 m high. Older portion of stem is grayish in color while younger is greenish. Leaves are 8-10, arising from the top of the stem.Leaflets are 50-55 in number, glabrous, and green. Petioles are smooth, and unarmed. Inflorescence is monoecious, branched, and bracts glabrous. Ovary is one-celled. Fruits are oblong or ovoid, long, and orange in color1.

Occurrence

A. catechu is originated in Malaysia or in the Philippines. It is mostly grow in Fiji, India, Japan, Kenya, Madagascar, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, and United States. In Pakistan, it is imported for recreational and medicinal purposed.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Powder of Areca catechu L. (Betel nut) is used for various purposes in Districts of Sindh. It includes:

  1. Powder of A. catechu is taken orally for the treatment of menorrhagia in Districts Naushahro Feroze (Sindh). It is taken orally in the morning with empty stomach for 3 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, and post partum hemorrhage in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  2. Powder is taken orally for the treatment of infertility, post partum hemorrhage, and prevention of miscarriage in District Jacobabad (Sindh). In the same District, it is used for contraceptive purpose.
  3. A. catechu is boiled in water and then sieved. The water is consumed orally for the treatment of infertility in District Sanghar (Sindh). It is taken orally twice a day for 3 days after periods for contraceptive purpose in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  4. Powder of A. catechu is taken orally with 1 cup of water or milk for 4-5 days for the treatment of menorrhagia and post partum hemorrhage in District Kamber(Sindh).

Strengthening of Uterus and Infertility

Salvia plebeian R. Brown. (Sage weed), Quercus infectoria Olivier. (Gall oak), crystal sugar, and A. catechu are crushed into fine powder.It is taken orally with milk daily for strengthening of uterus and for the treatment of infertility in District Sanghar (Sindh).

 

 

Infertility

  1. Ground in equal amounts of Anethum sowa Roxb. (Dill), Foeniculum vulgare var dulce. (Fennel), A. catechu, Cuminum cyminum L. (Cumin), fresh leaves of Lallemantia royleana Benth. (Black psyllium), and Cannabis sativa L. (Marijuana) to make paste. Paste is used to prepare vaginal suppositories and placed intra-vaginally for the first 3 days of periods at night for the treatment of infertility in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  2. One table spoon of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Salvia plebeia(Sage weed), A. catechu, Embelia robusta Roxb. (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris L. (French beans), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), and Anethum sowa (Dill) are fried in butter oil.It is taken orally in the morning for 5-6 days for the treatment of infertility in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  3. Equal quantities of Rosa indica L. (Rose) or Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium) or Azadirachta indica J. Juss. (Margose), and A. catechu are mashed to obtain a paste. It is taken orally for 5 days for the treatment of infertility in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  4. Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Tamarindus indicaL. (Tamarind), A. catechu, and crystal sugar are ground, and boiled in water. It is taken orallyon an empty stomach for 3 days for the treatment of infertility in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  5. Ground in equal amounts of Anethum sowa (Dill), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), A. catechu, Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint), fresh leaves of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Black cardamom), and Piper nigrum L. (Black pepper) to obtain powder. It is used orallyon an empty stomach for 4 days for the treatment of infertility in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  6. Withania coagulans Dunal. (Vegetable rennet), Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Green cardamom), Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Cannabis sativa (Marijauna), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), A. catechu,Tamarindus indica(Tamarind), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), bhati choro*, and candy sugar are mashed and make vaginal suppositories. It is advised to place intra-vaginally for 7 dyas regularly at nightfor the treatment of infertility in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  7. A. catechu, Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), gawaska (Purchased from pansar), and peel and fruit of Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate) are ground into powder. Two tablespoon of the powder is taken orally in the morning with empty stomach for a week for the treatment of infertility in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  8. Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), A. catechu, Anethum sowa (Dill), Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander), and Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) are ground, and fried in butter oil. 250 mL of water is added in it to make remedy. It is used orally in the morning for 5-6 days for the treatment of infertility in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  9. Salvia plebeia(Sage weed), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), sonu ghero, and A. catechu are crushed into fine powder.It is taken orally for the treatment of infertility in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  10. Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Quercus infectoria(Gall oak), catechu, Punica granatum (Pomegranate), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Tamarindus indica(Tamarind), and crystal sugar are taken and powdered together. A tablespoon of this powder is taken orally with water in the morning for a week for the treatment of infertility in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

 Leucorrhea

  1. A. catechu and Quercus infectoria (Gall oak) are ground together.It is taken orally for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  2. Equal quantities of Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Symplocos racemosa (Lodh), A. catechu, Salvia plebeian (Sage weed), 2-3 Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (Belleric myrobalau), and 5-6 Terminalia chebula Retz. (Black myrobalau) are mashed together to make paste. It is placed intra-vaginally twice a day for 5 days for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Kamber (Sindh).
  3. Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), A. catechu, and Tamarindus indica(Tamarind) are taken in equal quantities and mashed to make a small tablets are prepared. It is taken orally twice a day for 5 days for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Kamber (Sindh).
  4. Ground Cocos nucifera (Coconut), candy sugar, Prunus amygdalus Batsch.(Almond), Pistacia vera L. (Pistachio), Arachis hypogaea L. (Peanut), semi grind Triticum aestivum L. (Wheat), Punica granatum (Pomegranate), and A. catechu in equal amount, and 2 kg of butter is added in it. It is mixed thoroughly and a tablespoon of the mixture is taken orally thrice a day for 12 days for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  5. A. catechu and Punica granatum (Pomegranate) are ground into powder. A tablespoon of the powder is taken orally in the morning with empty stomach for the treatment of leucorrhea and menorrhagia in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  6. Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), A. catechu, Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (Golden shower), Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (Ginger), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), and Cuminum cyminum (Cumin) are ground in equal quantities.Two tablespoon of the powder taken orally in the morning with empty stomach for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Post Partum Hemorrhage

  1. Elettaria cardamomum(Green cardamom), 2-3 Mentha piperita (Peppermint), A. catechu, and Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), are ground together to make a paste. The paste is used to make vaginal suppositories that are placed intra-vaginally in the morning and removed at night for 4 days for the treatment of post partum hemorrhage in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  2. Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), A. catechu,andSalvia plebeia(Sage weed) are ground to make paste. A tablespoon of the paste is taken orally with empty stomach for 40 days for the treatment of post partum hemorrhage in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Miscarriage

  1. A. catechu, Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), jaggery, and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are ground together, and taken orally for the prevention of miscarriage in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  2. Equal quantities of Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Symplocos racemosa (Lodh), A. catechu, Salvia plebeian (Sage weed), Terminalia bellerica (Belleric myrobalau), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), 2 Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), crystal sugar, and candy sugar are ground to make remedy, taken orally for 3 days for the prevention of miscarriage in District Kamber (Sindh).
  3. A. catechu and Salvia plebeian (Sage weed) are ground in equal quantities to obtain a powder. A tablespoon of thispowder is taken orally twice a day for a week for the prevention of miscarriage in District Kamber (Sindh).
  4. Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), A. catechu, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Tamarindus indica(Tamarind), bark of asrilu*, and crystal sugar are powdered.A tablespoon of this powder is taken orally with water for 3 days in the morning for the prevention of miscarriage in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  5. Punica granatum (Pomegranate), A. catechu, Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), and crystal sugar are ground in equal quantities. A tablespoon of the mixture is taken orally twice a day for a week in summer for the prevention of miscarriage in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Dysmenorrhea

  1. Equal quantities of Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), A. catechu,and Symplocos racemosa (Lodh) are fried in half cup of butter oil, and then mixed with some water. A cup of this water is taken orally in the morning for 3 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Kamber (Sindh).
  2. Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Tamarindus indica(Tamarind), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Salvia plebeian (Sage weed), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), A. catechu, and Cuminum cyminum (Cumin) are fried in 1 cup of butter oil. It is then mixed with 250 mL water and consumed orallyin the morning with empty stomach for 6 days for dysmenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  3. Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), A. catechu, and crystal sugar are ground and then fried in butter oil. 250 mL water is added in it to make remedy. It is taken orally in the morning for 3 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  4. Equal amount of A. catechu, Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), 4-5 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), 2 slug of Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Triticum aestivum (Wheat),and jaggery are fried in 250 mL butter oil.The prepared remedy is taken orally in the morning with empty stomach for 3 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Dyspareunia

  1. Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), A. catechu, and achro are ground to make a paste. It is used to prepare vaginal suppositories and place intra-vaginally for 3 days at nightin District Kashmore (Sindh).
  2. Equal quantities of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), Cannabis sativa (Marijuana), 4-5 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), 2-3 Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Trachyspermum ammiL. (Carom), A. catechu, and fresh leaves of Azadirachta indica (Margose) are mashed to make paste. It is used to prepare vaginal suppositories and placed intra-vaginally in the morning and removed at night for 3 days for the treatment of dyspareunia in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Leucorrhea, Infertility, and Dysmenorrhea

Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), A. catechu, Pista vera (Pistachio) flowers, anjpal ka sharbat, peel of Punica granatum (Pomegranate), and Quercus infectoria (Gall oak) are ground.A tablespoon of the mixture is taken orally once a day during periods for the treatment of leucorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and infertility in District Ghotki (Sindh).

Labor Pain

Equal quantities of Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Symplocos racemosa (Lodh), A. catechu, Salvia plebeian (Sage weed), Terminalia chebula (Black myrobalau), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Cassia angustifolia (Golden shower), and jaggery are mashed to make paste. It is placed intra-vaginally for inducing labor pain in District Kamber (Sindh).

Dysmenorrhea, Leucorrhea, Post Partum Hemorrhage and Expulsion of Umblical Cord after Delivery

Ground A. catechu, Apium graveolens L. (Celery), Embelia ribes Burm. f. (False black pepper), Anethum sowa (Dill), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and bark of Punica granatum (Pomegranate) to obtain a paste.A tablespoon of this paste is taken orally for 3 days during periods for the treatment of dysmenorrheaand leucorrhea. The same remedy is used for 4-5 days for the treatment ofpost partum hemorrhage. The remedy is also used intra-vaginally for 6-7 days for the expulsion of umblical cord after deliveryin District Kamber (Sindh).

Amenorrhea and Infertility

Equal quantities of Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), A. catechu, Salvia plebeian (Sage weed), behra*, Holarrhena antidysenterica (Tellichery bark and coneru), and Tamarindus indica (Tamarind) are mashed to make paste. Small tablets are prepared from it and placed intra-vaginally for 2-3 days at night for the treatment of amenorrhea as well as infertility in District Kamber (Sindh).

Pelvic inflammation Diseases

Ground Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug, Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Liquorice), A. catechu, and jaggery in equal amount to make a paste, and taken orally for 3 days for pelvic inflammation diseases in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Amenorrhea

  1. Salvia plebeia(Sage weed), Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), A. catechu, Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), achro, jaggery, and wheat flour are ground, and mixed together to obtain a powder. It is taken orally in the morning with empty stomach for 3 days for the treatment of amenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  2. Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), A. catechu, Salvia plebeia(Sage weed) and Cinnamomum cassia Nees.(Chinese cassia) are ground together to make a remedy. A tablespoon of this remedy is taken orally with water for 3 days for the treatment of amenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  3. Jaggery, A. catechu (Betel nut), and Anethum sowa Roxb. (Dill) are boiled. It is advised to take orally for 3-4 days during menstruation.

Dysmenorrhea, Miscarriage, and Sexually Transmitted Disease

A. catechu, Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), and Salvia plebeia(Sage weed) are ground together to make a paste. The paste is taken orally with milk for 5 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh). The paste is also used to make suppositories that are placed intra-vaginally for the prevention of miscarriage and Sexually Transmitted Disease in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Strengthening of Uterus

  1. Equal quantities of Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), A. catechu, Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), bark of Acacia nilotica L. Willd. (Kikar), crystal sugar, and 10-12 flowers of mustard are mixed in 2 table spoons butter oil, and then boiled in 2 glass of water. It is taken orally for strengthening of uterus in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  2. Equal quantities of Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), A. catechu, Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), and Symplocos racemosa (Lodh) are ground. It is taken orally twice a day for 3 days for strengthening of uterus in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  3. Cocos nuciferaL. (Coconut), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), A. catechu, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Tamarindus indica(Tamarind), Holarrhena antidysenterica (Tellichery bark and coneru), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Anethum sowa (Dill), Cannabis sativa (Marijuana), Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), and crystal sugar ground together to make paste. It is placed intra-anally everynight for 2 weeksfor strengthening of uterus in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  4. Equal quantities Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (Lorad), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), A. catechu (Betel nut), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), and 6-7 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cradamom) are taken. The ingredients are powdered separately and then mixed together. 2 Tablespoons of the mixture is advised to take orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 10 days. The treatment is extended for a couple of days more if required.
  5. Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Areca catechu (Betel nut), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Tamarindus indicum (Tamarind), Holarrhena antidysenterica L. (Tellichery bark and coneru), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Anethum sowa (Dill), Cannabis sativa (Marijuana), Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), and crystal sugar are powdered separately. All ingredients are then combined together and tablets are formed.It is advised to place tablet intra-vaginally at night for 2 weeks. The treatment is extended to a whole month if improvemnet is not seen.

Conceiving Male Child

Powdered equal quantities of Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), nar ghanda (purchased from pansar), Holarrhena antidysenterica (Tellichery bark and coneru), Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Tamarindus indica(Tamarind), Mentha piperta (Peppermint), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), and A. catechu are mixed in butter oil. The prepared remedy is taken orally with empty stomach for 8-10 days for conceiving male child in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD)

Ground in equal quantities of Punica granatum (Pomegranate), A. catechu, Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), bark of Acacia nilotica (Kikar), Triticum aestivum (Wheat), crystal sugar, some leaves of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), and butter are boiled in some water.It is taken orally with empty stomach for 3 days for sexually transmitted disease (STD) in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Leucorrhea and Conceiving Male Child

GroundOnosma hispida(Rattan jot), A. catechu, and Quercus infectoria (Gall oak) in equal quantities into powder. Half spoon of the powder is taken orally for 3 days for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Jamshoro (Sindh). The same remedy is prescribed orally for the conceiving male child in District Jamshoro (Sindh). It is advised to avoid milk, yougurt and rice during the treatment.

Leucorrhea and Prevention from Abortion

A. catechu and Quercus infectoria (Gall oak) are taken in equal quantities, and ground into powder form. The powder is used orally twice a day for 4 days for the treatment of leucorrhea as well as prevention from recurrent abortion and pre termDistrict Jamshoro (Sindh).

Expulsion of Umblical Cord after Delivery, Contraception, Infertility, Backache during Menstruation, and Shrinking of Abdominal Size after Child Birth

Little bit of rock sugar, a pinch of rock salt, 10 gSalvia plebeia (English plebeian), 10 g kahri*, 10 gEmbelia ribes (False black pepper), 5 gOriganum vulgare (Oregano), 10 gApium graveolens (Celery), 1 whole A. catechu, Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), 10-12g Anethum sowa (Dill), 5-8 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), 2-3 Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), and 2 slug of Mentha piperita (Peppermint) are crushed to obtain a powder form. This powder is taken orally for the treatment of various purposes, such as infertility, backache during menstruation, as contraceptive, placed intra-vaginally twice a day for 7 days for expulsion of plasma membrane after delivery. It is recommended first give jeggary to the lady after two hours the treatment started, and for shrinking of abdominal size after child birth in District Jamshoro and Thatta (Sindh). In this powder, dried and crushed peel of Punica granatum (Pomegranate) can be added and considered for the treatment of menorrhagia in District Jamshoro (Sindh). Addition of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) to above prepared powder is recommended for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases in District Jamshoro (Sindh).

For Regulation of Menstrual Cycle at their 1st Menstrual Cycle

Ground equal quantities of A. catechu, Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Anethum sowa (Dill), and Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), 3-4 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and 1 Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom) are fried in butter, and mixed with water. This remedy is taken orally for 3 days for regulating menstrual cycle in District Jamshoro (Sindh).

Backache during Menstruation

  1. Ground Apium graveolens (Celery), Embelia ribes Burm. f. (False black pepper), Morus acidosa Griff. (Mulberry), Quercu infectoria Olivier. (Gall oak), Areca catechu L. (Betel nut), Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce. (Fennel), Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Green cardamom), Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint) slug, and crystal sugar are soaked for few hours and then sieved this water. It is advised to take orally 1 table spoon twice a day for 5 to 7 days.
  2. Asparagus officinalis (Garden asparagus) is first fried in butter. Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Green cardamom), and crystal sugar or candy sugar are added to the A. catechu (Betel nut) leaf, and stirred until a semi-solid mass is formed. Tablets are prepared from this semi solid mass. It is advised to take this formulation orally. It is also prescribed for increasing the chance of conceiving and is given on the last 2-3 days of menstruation.

Polymenorrhea and Menorrhagia

Equal quantities of Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), A. catechu, and Terminalia bellerica (Belleric myrobalau) are crushed to obtain a powder.A tablespoon of the powder is taken orally in the morning with empty stomach for 7-8 days for the treatment of polymenorrhea and menorrhagia in District Kamber (Sindh).

Menorrhagia

  1. Equal quantities of Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Symplocos racemosa (Lodh), A. catechu, Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), and Terminalia bellerica (Belleric myrobalau) are mashed together to make fine powder. The powder is taken orally twice a day for 5 days for the treatment of menorrhagia in District Kamber (Sindh).
  2. Equal amount of A. catechu, Juniperus communis L. (Juniper), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and Anethum sowa (Dill) are soaked in water.This water is used orally in the morning with empty stomach for 3 days for the treatment of menorrhagia in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
  3. Sakhn*, Anethum sowa (Dill), and A. catechuare taken in equal amounts, and mashed into a powder form. It is taken orally for 3 days for the treatment of menorrhagia in District Mitiari (Sindh).
  4. 1 cup milk, small amount of clarified butter, and one table spoon A. catechuare mixed together. It is taken orally for 5-6 days for the treatment of menorrhagia in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  5. Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), A. catechu, Cocos nucifera (Coconut),and sugar in equal quantities are ground to make paste. It is taken orally during menstruation for the treatment of menorrhagia in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Menorrhagia and Infertility

Equal amount of ground Cuminum cyminum L. (Cumin), Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce. (Fennel), Apium graveolens L. (Celery), Quercus infectoria Olivier. (Gall oak), A. catechu L. (Betel nut), Salvia plebeia R. Brown. (Sage weed), Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (Loard), behra*, sakhoro*, sugar, and Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Green cardamom) are taken, and mixed all together. It is advised to take mixture twice daily, orally for 5 days for the treatment of menorrahagia and infertility in the District Larkana (Sindh).

Fibroids Uterus

1 table spoon A. catechu, Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), 1 slug of Mentha piperita (Peppermint), and 4 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom)are crushed into a powder.It is taken orally daily during the periods for fibroid uterus as well as post partum hemorrhage in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Complete Dilation and Curettage(D&C)

Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), A. catechu L. (Betel nut), and anhydrous alum (dried over heat) are ground separately, and then mixed together. It is tied in cotton with a trailing thread. It is advised to place the cotton bag intra-vaginally with the trailing thread in front, so that it can be pulled out easily for 2-3 days for the treatment of complete dilation and curettage in the District Sukkur (Sindh).

Expulsion of Umbilical Cord and Dilation and Curettage (D&C), and Treatment of Leucorrhea

Prunus amgyldas Batsch. (Almond), Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint) leaves, A. catechu L.  (Betel nut), Tamarindus indicum L. (Tamarind), red earth, Terminalia bellirica Roxb. (Myrobalau), Terminalia chebula Retz. (Black myrobalau), and Piper nigrum L. (Black pepper) are mixed together and grounded into fine powder, and mixed all together. This powder is kneaded with Juglans regia Linn. (Walnut) barks extract and converted into tablet form. It is advised to place tablet intra-vaginally twice daily for 6 days.

 Expulsion of Umbilical Cord after Delivery

A. catechu L. (Betel nut), Quercus infectoria Olivier. (Gall oak), Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (Lorad), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Rosa indica L. (Rose) petals, Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Green cardamom), Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (Indian senna), and Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint) slug are ground, and then converted into tablets form. It is advised to place tablet intra-vaginally for 4 days consecutively. Therapy is started after 3 days of delivery.

2. Powdered Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Areca catechu (Betel nut), Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice), Apium graveolens (Celery), Embelia ribes (False black pepper), Butea frondosa ex. Willd. (Palash), pata puri*, and jaggary are mixed together, and converted into tablet. It is advised to place tablets intra-vaginally after 3 days of delivery.

For Strengthening of Uterus, and treatment of Leucorrhea, and Infertility

  1. Powdered Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Areca catechu (Betel nut), behra*, flowers of Pistacia vera (Pistachio) are mixed with each other. It is advised to take this remedy for 3 days twice daily after menstruation ends.
  2. Equal amount of powdered Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), catechu (Betel nut), dry Mangifera indica L. (Mango) seed, crystal sugar, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are taken. All are mixed together to make remedy. It is advised to use 1 spoon of this remedy orally, 3 times daily for 3 days regularly in the District Shikarpur (Sindh). Suppositories are also made of it and placed intra-vaginally in the same District.
  3. Powdered Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), catechu (Betel nut), lorad*, Salvia plebeia R. Brown. (Sage weed), kapi khero*, and Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Black cardamom) are mixed together to make remedy. It is advised to takeorally on 3rd day of menstruation.
  4. Powdered Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), kahi kehra*, Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), and catechu (Betel nut) are taken. Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) is fried in butter oil and small amount of water and crystal sugar is added in it. Then powder is added and fried to make remedy. It is advised to takeorally for 7 days in the District Shikarpur (Sindh).
  5. Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), catechu (Betel nut), lorad and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are ground, and mixed together. Sugar is added to make remedy. It is advised to take orally during menstruation, for 5 days.

Recurrent Abortion and Infertility

Equal amount of powdered Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Black cardamom), Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Green cardamom), Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint) slug, Quercus infectoria Olivier. (Gall oak), A. catechu L. (Betel nut), kacha paka wai*, Tamarindus indicumL. (Tamarind), Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce. (Fennel),Cuminum cyminum L. (Cumin), Trachyspermum ammi L. (Carom), dried Zingiber officinaleRoscoe. (Ginger), monhlalai*, mosfa*, Salvia plebeia R. Brown (Sage weed), Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (Loard), behra*, candy sugar, Phoenix dactylifera L. (dry dates), Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut), and Prunus amgydalus Batsch. (Almond) are taken, and mixed all together. It is advised to take 1 spoon of the mixture orally for 1-2 months regularly.

Chemical Constituents

A. catechu contains polyphenols, fats, starchs, and alkaloids. Polyphenolsinclude (+)-catechin, epicatechin, (+)-leucocyanidin, and complex flavonoids. Four major alkaloids isolated fromBetel nutwere arecoline, arecaidine, guvacoline, and guvacine.Fatty acids, minerals, Vitamin B6, Vitamin C2,and amino acidswere also found in A. catechu3. Major glycerides includetrimyristin, dimyristins, lauromyristopalmitin,hexadeceno-lauromyristins, oleolinoleo-glycerides, and oleolinoleopalmitin units3.

Chemical Structure:

areca-catechu-l-st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

Decoction of A. catechu rootsis used for curing sore lips. Leaves juice mixed with oil and used as embrocation in lumbago4.Its used for the treatment of leucorrhea5, diarrhea, urinary disorders, vaginal laxity6, and salivation7.Its use has been reported for producing a sense of well being, a hot sensation in the body, increased sweating7, heightened awareness, prevention of hunger, increased capacity to work7,8, and for the treatment of malaria9. Root of A. catchuis effective against various ailments like urinary tract disorders, skin irritations, worm disturbances, and as a component in health tonic formulations. Young leaf sheath is used in the treatment of migraine10. Young leaves are used for inducing abortion in early pregnancy11.

  1. catchu contains many active chemical constituents that have pharmacological activities. Fatty acids and procyanidins possess antibacterial activity, while arecoline has vascular-relaxation, molluscicidal, and hypoglycemic activities.Plant is also reported for antioxidative, free radical scavenging, antihyaluronidase, antiinflammatory, antimelanogenisis, antiaging, hypolipideamic, antihypertensive, antidepressant, wound healing, antiulcerogenic, antiradical, antiallergic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, central nervous system stimulant, and anti-HIV activities3.

REFERENCES

  1. Rafique, M. (1841). Flora of Pakistan, 153, p.4.
  2. Amudhan, M. S., Hazeena, V., and Hebbar, K. B. (2012).A review on Phytochemical and Pharmacological Potential of Areca catechu Seed. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 3(11), 4151-4157.
  3. Jaiswal, P. (2011). Areca catechu L.: A Valuable Herbal Medicine against Different Health Problems. Research Journal of Medicinal Plant, 5(2), 145-152.
  4. Pullaiah, T. (2006). Encyclopaedia of World Medicinal Plants, 1, 197. Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.
  5. Mhaskar, K. S., Blatter, E., and Caius, J. F. (2000). Indian Medicinal Plants, 10, p. 3517, Sri Satguru Publications, Indological and Orintal publishers, Delhi, India.
  6. Khare, P. C. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 59, Springer Science Publishers, New York, USA.
  7. Chu, N. S. (2001). Effects of Betel Chewing on the Central and Autonomic Nervous Systems. Journal of Biomedical Science, 8(3), 229-36.
  8. Bales, A., Peterson, M.J., Ojha, S., Upadhaya, K., Adhikari, B., and Barrett, B. (2009). Associations between Betel Nut (Areca catechu) and Symptoms of Schizophrenia among Patients in Nepal: A Longitudinal Study. Psychiatry Research, 169(3), 203-11.
  9. Parjapati, N. D. (2003). A Handbook of Medicinal Plants, 59, Agrobios, Jodhpur, India.
  10. Baby, A. A., Raphael, K. R. (2013). An Ethno-Medical Survey on Peechi Village of Thrichur District, Kerala, India to Unravel the World of Traditional Ottamoolis. Plant Archieves Journal, 13(Suppl 2), 767-769.
  11. Chadha, Y. A. (2003). The Wealth of India -Raw Material, 1-A: 406, National institute of Science Communication and Information Resources, CSIR, Dr K.S. Kirshanan Marg, India.

Asparagus adscendens Roxb.

Botanical Name:          Asparagus adscendens Roxb.asparagus-adscendens-roxb

Kingdom:                      Plantae

Order:                           Asparagales

Family:                         Asparagaceae

Genus:                          Aspsaragus

Local Name:                  Safed musli

Sindhi Name:                 Musli

English Name:               Asparagus, Sparrowgrass

Parts Used:                    Tuberous root or rhizome

Description:


Asparagus adscendens
Roxb. roots are tuberous. Young branches are ash grey to white, whereas branch lets are grooved. Inflorescence is long raceme. Pedical is long and articulated below or in the middle. Flowers are bisexual. Filaments are attached to the base of perianth. Berries are dark red in color and about 4-5 mm in diameter1.

Occurrence

A. adscendensis widely distributed inPakistan and India. In Pakistan, it is found in Hazara, Rawalpindi hills, Kotli, Mirpur, Sakesar, Malakand, Kohat, Waziristan, Subhimalayan tracts, outer Himalaya ascending 1500 metres, and Kashmir.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Powder, prepared fromAsparagus adscendens Roxb. (Asparagus), Cydonia oblonga Mill. (Quince), kanro wakhar, and candy sugar, is used orally for the treatment of infertility in District Naushahro Feroze (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

A. adscendensyields asparagin. Sapogenins A and B were isolated from the root2.3-Heptadecanone, 8-hexadecanonic acid, and methyl pentacosanoate are also isolated from different part of plant3.

 Chemical Structure

 asparagus-adscendens-roxb-st

 

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

A. adscendensis used for increasing the sperm count, as general health tonic, stimulation of insulin secretion and action, and to inhibit starch digestion4. Itis helpfulin postpartum hemorrhage, nourishing fetus during pregnancy, and increasing breast milk flow5. It is effective in dyspepsia, flatulence, diarrhea, and genito-urinary complaints, such as seminal weakness, impotence, spermatorrhea, leucorrhea, and gonorrhea6. Rhizomes are used for general weaknesses, and roots are used for curing dysentery7. A. adscendenspossess antifilarial activity8.

REFERENCES

  1. Ali, S. I., and Khan, S. W. (1825). Flora of Pakistan, 217, p.3, Pakistan.
  2. Khare, C. P. (2003). Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 68, Springer Science Publisher, New Delhi, India.
  3. Tendon, M., Skula, Y, N., and Thakur, R. S. (1990). Constituents of Asparagus adscendens.Fitoterapia, 61(5), 473.
  4. Ray, A.B., Chansouria, J.P.N., Hemalatha, S. (2010). Medicinal Plants: Anti-diabetic and Hypoglycemic Activities, p. 46-47, IBDC Publisher, Lukhnow, India.
  5. http://ayurveda.astrologytutorials.com/medicines-remedies/safeta-musali-white-musali-asparagus-adscendens-roxb/.
  6. http://desiakhbar.com/demos/tayyebi/site/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=46&Itemid=44.
  7. Pullaih,T. (2006). Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants, p. 237, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.
  8. Singh, R., Khan, N, U., and Singhal, K, C. (1997). Potential Antifilarial Activity of Roots of Asparagus adscendens against setaria cervi in vitro. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 35(2), 168-72.

Azadirachta indica J. Juss.

Botanical Name:         Azadirachta indicaJ. Juss.azadirachta-indica-j-juss

Kingdom:                      Plantae

Order:                           Sapindales

Family:                         Meliaceae

Genus:                          Azadirachta

Local Name:                  Neem

Sindhi Name:                 Nim

English Name:               Margosa tree

Part Used:                     Leaves

Description

Azadirachta indicaJ. Juss.is up to 15 m tall. Branches are widely spread and pinnate. Leaves areimparipinnate;leaflets are broad, ovate, and subsessile. Flowersare white in color, sweet scented, andarranged axillary. Fruit, a drupe,is oblong, greenish-yellow in color, and contains one seed1.

Occurrence

A. indicais native to India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Thailand, Myanmar, and Malaysia.In Pakistan, it is cultivated in parts of Sindh, Baluchistan, and southern Punjab. It is widely spread in drier regions, and is planted in farms, roadsides, and common land.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Backache during Menstruation

Tamarindus indicum L. (Tamarind), fruit Azadirachta indica J. Juss. (Margosa), Boswellia serrata Roxb. (Indian frankincense), Foeniculum vulgare(Fennel), and slug of Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint) are ground together. This mixture is then sieved through muslin cloth to obtain a fine powder. A pinch of salt is dissolved in water. This salty water is used to knead the powdered mixture. Small tablets are prepared out of it. A tablet is placed intra-anally daily during menstruationfor the treatment of backache in the District Tharparkar (Sindh). It is recommended to continue the treatment for 2 months for the treatment of backache during menstruation.

Complete Dilation and Curettage

  1. Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Acorus calamus L. (Sweet flag), Quercus infectoria Olivier. (Gall oak), Allium cepa L. (Onion), and A. indica J. Juss. (Neem) leaves are ground together to prepare small marble like tablets. A tablet is advised to place a tablet intra-vaginally daily for 10-15 days after miscarriage for the complete dilation and curettage inthe District Thatta (Sindh).
  2. A. indica Juss. (Neem) leaves are tied in a cotton cloth. They are warmed slightly on fire and placed intra-vaginally fot the complete dilation and curettage inthe District Thatta (Sindh).

 

Dysmenorrhea

  1. Apium graveolensL. (Celery), Embelia ribes Burm. f. (False black pepper), Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Nutmeg), Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut), fresh leaves of Azadirachta indica J. Juss.(Margose), and paryo* are ground to make fine powder. Powder is mixed with some water and converted into paste. It is then used to prepare vaginal tablets and placed intra-veginally in the morning for 3-4 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Dadu (Sindh).
  2. Fresh leaves of A. indica are boiled in water and take a bath with this water for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Dadu (Sindh).
  3. Fresh leaves of A. indica are ground and made small balls. It is placedintra-vaginallyfor 3 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Naushahro Feroze (Sindh).
  4. Dried flower of A. indica are powdered and mixed with some water to make an oral extract for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Umerkot (Sindh).
  5. Anethum sowa Roxb. (Dill), Origanum vulgareL. (Oregano), leaves of A. indica, leaves of Rhazya strictaL. (Rhazya), and jaggery are ground to make paste. It is placed intra-vaginally once a day for 3 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Jamshoro (Sindh).

 Leucorrhea

Fresh leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem) are ground.  It is boiled with sugar to make thicker consistency and then converted into tablets. The tablet is advised to place intra-vaginally once daily for 2-4 days for the treatment of leucorrhea in the District Thatta (Sindh).

Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases

  1. Fresh leaves Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), A. indica, and Mentha piperitaL. (Peppermint) slug are mashed to make paste. Suppositories are prepared and advised to place intra-vaginally for 4 nights for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory diseases in District Dadu (Sindh).
  2. Boiled indica leaves water is used for streaming for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory diseases in District Tando Allahyar (Sindh).
  3. Boiled indica leaves are used to make poultice and placed over abdomen for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory diseases, and dyspareunia in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Fibroid uterus

  1. Acorus calamus (Sweet flag), Anethum sowa (Dill), crystal sugar, leaves of A. indica, and bulb of Allium cepa L. (Onion) are burnt into ashes, and then mixed with butter oil. It is used to make intra-vaginal tablets for the treatment of fibroid uterus in District Thatta (Sindh).
  2. Warm indicaleaves are used to make vaginal suppostories for the treatment of fibroid uterus in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).
  3. Stream of warm indicaleaves are given through vagina for the treatment of fibroid uterus in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).
  4. Fresh leaves of indicaare ground and little bit of soap stone is added to make paste. It is used to make vaginal suppositories for the treatment of fibroid uterus in District Naushahro Feroze (Sindh).

Shrinking of Abdominal Size

Crushed fresh leaves Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), A. indica, Acorus calamusL. (Sweet flag), samoori*, and brown sugar are mixed, and tablets are prepared. It is placed intra-vaginally for 5 days for shrinking the abdominal size after child birth in District Dadu (Sindh).

Sexual Transmitted Diseases (STD)

  1. Boiled indicaleaves in water and 2-3 drop of dettol is added, and used for taking bath for the treatment of sexual transmitted diseases (STD) in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  2. Boiled indicaleaves water is used for taking bath for the treatment of sexual transmitted diseases (STD) in Districts Kashmore and Tando Allahyar (Sindh).
  3. Boiled indicaleaves in water and add fuller’s earth to make a thick paste. This paste is used for vaginal cleaning in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).
  4. Warm indicaleaves and Trachyspermum copticum (Carom) together, used for taking stream intra-vaginally for the treatment of sexual transmitted diseases in District Tandoadam (Sindh). It is advised to use till itching stopped.

Vaginal Purities

  1. Leaves of indica are boiled and that extract is used as vaginal douche for the treatment of vaginal pruritus in Districts Shahdatkot, Neusheroferoz, Sanghar, Shaheed Benazirabad, Matiari, and Thatta (Sindh).
  2. Leaves of indica, leaves of Lawsonia inermis (Henna), and leaves of shahtro suti* are boiled in water, and then sieved. This water is used as vaginal douche for the treatment of vaginal purities in District Shahdatkot (Sindh).
  3. Leaves of indicaand salt are boiled in some water.This water is used for taking bath for the treatment of vaginal purities in DistrictsSanghar and Mirpurkhas (Sindh).

Infertility

  1. Equal quantities of indicaleaves and Areca catechu (Betel nut) are mashed, and taken orally for the treatment of infertility in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  2. Mentha piperita (Peppermint), crystal sugar, Origanum vulgare (Oregano), and some leaves of indicaare ground to make paste. It is used to prepare intra-vaginal tablets for the treatment of infertility in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  3. Paste of indica seeds are placed intravaginally during first 2 day of menstruation for the treatment of infertility in District Umerkot (Sindh).

Dyspareunia

  1. Equal quantities of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), Cannabis sativa (Marijuana), 4-5 Elettaria cardamomumMaton. (Green cardamom), 2-3 Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Trachyspermum ammiL. (Carom), Areca catechu (Betel nut), and fresh leaves of A. indicaare mashed to make paste. It is used to prepare vaginal suppositories for the treatment of dyspareunia in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  2. Boiled indicaleaves in water and use this water for taking bath during menstruation for the treatment of dyspareunia in District Tando Allahyar (Sindh).

Menorrhagia

Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), dried Cocos nucifera (Coconut), sweet cuddle, candy sugar, 32 herbs (purchased from pansar), leaves of A. indica, Withania coagulans Dunal. (Vegetable rennet), zaikha*, and khul mir* are ground together to make paste. Intra-vaginal tablets are prepared from it and used for 3 days for the treatment of menorrhagia as well as backache during menstruation in District Jamshoro (Sindh).

Conceiving Male Child

Paste of A. indicaleaves and candy sugar are mixed together.It is used to make suppositories and dipped in butter oil. These suppositories are placed intra-vaginally for conceiving male child in District Tando Allahyar (Sindh).

 Labor Pain

A piece of A. indicastem is placed intravaginally for inducing labor pain in District Umerkot (Sindh).

Prevention of Miscarriage

  1. Flowers of indicaand one Terminalia chebula Retz. (Black myrobalau) are soaked in some water, and sieved.This water is consumed orally for the prevention of miscarriage in District Umerkot (Sindh).
  2. Intra-vaginal suppositories are prepared with ground indicaleaves and used for the prevention of miscarriage in District Naushahro Feroze (Sindh).
  3. After 40 days of pregnancy, leave of indica J. Juss. (Neem) with water is taken regularly till the end of pregnancy inthe District Thatta (Sindh).

Prolapsed Uterus

  1. Dried fruit of indicaand Terminalia chebula (Black myrobalau) are ground to make intra-vaginal tablets for the treatment of prolapsed uterus in District Umerkot (Sindh).
  2. Leave paste of indicaare placed intra-vaginally for the treatment of prolapsed uterus in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).

Polymenorrhea and Leucorrhea

A cotton swab dipped in Azadirachta indica J. Juss. (Neem) extract is recommended for vaginal cleaning during the first 2-3 days of menstruation. For the treatment of leucorrhea it is recommended to place it intravaginally for a week for the treatment of polymenorrhea and leucorrhea in the District Thatta (Sindh).

Expulsion of Umbilical Cord

Fruit of A. indica, mosfa*, crystal sugar, and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are crushed into a powder form.It is mixed with few drops of butter oil to make paste. Paste is placed intra-vaginally for expulsion of umbilical cord in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

Bioactive compounds of neem have been isolated from different parts of the plant. They are divided into two groups: isoprenoids and non-isoprenoids. Isoprenoids include diterpenoids and triterpenoids containing protomeliacins, limonoids (azadirachtin, salannin, meliantriol, and nimbin)2, azadirone and its derivatives, gedunin and its derivatives, vilasinin compounds, and csecomeliacins (nimbin, salanin, and azadirachtin)3. Nonisoprenoids include amino acids, polysaccharides, sulphurous compounds, polyphenolics, such as flavonoids and their glycosides, dihydrochalcone, coumarin, tannins, and aliphatic compounds4. Tignic acid is found in seeds2.

Chemical Structure

azadirachta-indica-j-juss-st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

A. indicais used as an emmenagogue4. Neem oil is widely used as a contraceptive5, and in cosmetics, as soap, neem shampoo, balms, and creams for its antimicrobial effects4. It is also used as treatment of vaginal infections5, leprosy, ulcer, wounds, malarial fever, diabetes, amenorrhea, lumbago6, toothache, bad breath, gum diseases7, dysmenorrhea, leucorrhea, post labor pain of uterus, and amenorrhea8.

Leaf bark has antimicrobial, anthelmenic, insecticidal, antiviral, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities5. Nimbidin, the major constituent of plant, is reported for its antiarthritic, hypoglycaemic, antigastric ulcer, spermicidal, antifungal, antibacterial, and diuretic effects. Extract prepared with various organic solvents have shownantipyretic, analgesic, immunostimulant,antifertility, hepatoprotective, and anticarcinogenic activities3.

REFERENCES

  • Abdulla, P. (1909). Flora of Pakistan, 17, p.1, Stewart Herbarium, Gordon College, Rawalpindi.
  • Hashmat, I. (2012). Neem (Azadirachta indica Juss.) – A Nature’s Drugstore: An overview, International Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 1(6), 76-79.
  • Kumar, P. S. (2010). Biological Action and Medicinal Properties of Various Constituent of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae)”, An Overview, Annals of Biological Research, 1(3), 24-34.
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azadirachta_indica.
  • Khare, C. P. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 75-76, Springer Science Publishers, New York, USA.
  • Parjapati, N. D. (2003). A Handbook of Medicinal Plants, 79, Agrobios, Jodhpur, India.
  • Bhatacharjee, K. S. (2004). Handbook of Medicinal Plants, 54, Pointer Publishers, Jiapur, India.
  • Jadah, A. N., and Bhutani, K. K. (2005). Ayurveda and Gynecological Disorders. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 97, 151–159

Bambusa glaucescens (Willd.) Sieb. ex Munro

Botanical Name:        Bambusa glaucescens (Willd.) Sieb. ex Munro

Kingdom:                      Plantaebambusa-glaucescens-willd-sieb-ex-munro

Order:                           Poales

Family:                         Poaceae

Genus:                          Bambusa

Local Name:                  Bans, Bamboo

Sindhi Name:                 Bans

English Name:               Bamboo

Parts Used:                    Shoots and leaves

Description

Bambusa glaucescens (Willd.) Sieb. ex Munro is among the fastest growing plants in the world.Some species of bambusa are capable of growing 100 centimeters or more per day due to a uniquerhizome-dependent system. However, the growth rate is partially dependent on local soil, and climatic conditions. Individual bamboo stems, or culms, emerge from the ground. Branches extend from the nodes1.

Occurrence

B. glaucescensis a native of China and Japan. In Pakistan, it is cultivated on large scale in Punjab,and in mangrove wetlands.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Oral extract,prepared by boilingBambusa glaucescens (Willd.) Sieb. ex Munro (Bamboo) shoot,Trachyspermum ammiL. (Carom), and jaggery isused for dilation and curettage after miscarriageas well as for the expulsion ofumbilical cord after delivery in District Tandoadam (Sindh). It is advised to take half a cup in the morning with empty stomach for 3 days.

Chemical Constituents

Choline, betain, nuclease, urease, proteolytic enzyme, distatic and emulsifying enzymes, bangsolochan. Young roots contain a cyanogenetic glucoside and are poisonous. Young shoots also contain HCN, benzoic acid, reducing sugars, and waxes2.

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

A. glaucescensis used for the treatment of infections and healing1. Leaves and stems are used as blood purifier3.B. glaucescensleaves are emmanegogue, anthelmintic, and astringent. Methnolic extract of leaves showed anti-inflammatory activity3. Bioactive lignophenol derivatives from bamboo lignin exhibited neuroprotective activity4. Bamboo oil showed antioxidative and nitrite scavenging activities5. Bamboo powder exhibit antifungal activity6.

REFERENCES

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bamboo
  2. Joshi, S. G. (2000). Medicinal plants, p. 234, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, India.
  3. Pullaiah, T. (2006). Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants, 1, p. 277-278, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.
  4. Ito, Y., Akao, Y., Shimazawa, M., Seki, N., Nozawa, Y., and Hara, H. (2007). Drug Reviews, 13(3), p. 296-307, Department of Biofunctional Molecules, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu, Japan.
  5. Choi, D., Cho, Ki-An., Na, Myung-Sun., Choi, Hyun-Suk., Kim, Yeon-Ok., Lim, Dong-Hoon., Cho, S.J., and Cho, H. (2008). Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 14(6), p. 765-770, Department of Environmental Health, Cho-dang University, Chonnam, South Korea.
  6. Fukuda, S., Hanaya, Y., Shibuya, T., and Chaen, H. (2005). Igaku to Seibutsugaku, 149(5), p. 199-203, Amase Inst., Hayashibara Biochem. Lab., Inc., Okayama, Japan.

Berberis vulgaris L.

Botanical Name:             Berberis vulgaris L.berberis-vulgaris-l

Kingdom:                      Plantae

Order:                           Ranunculales

Family:                         Berberidaceae

Genus:                          Berberis

Local Name:                  Rasaut

Sindhi Name:                 Raswal

English Name:               European barberry

Part Used:                     Whole plant

 Description


Berberis vulgaris
L. is a deciduousshrub that can grow up to 4 m high. Leavesare small oval, long and broad. Margin of the leaves are serrated. They are borne together in clusters of 2-5 together. Flowersare yellow in color and about 4–6 mm across. Panicles are 3–6 cm long. Fruitsare oblong red berry, which ripen in late summer or autumn1.

Occurrence

B. vulgaris is a native to central and southern Europe, northwest Africa, and western Asia. It is also naturalized in northern Europe, including the British Isles and Scandinavia, North America, andIran.In Pakistan, it occurs in Dobandi kalan, Chaman, Zhob district, Ziarat hills, Shahrig hills in Sibi, and Hurasan hills.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Dysmenorrhea and Menorrhagia

Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint) slug, Lallemantia royleanaBenth. (Black psylium), Berberis vulgarisL. (European berry), Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Green cardamom), crystal sugar, and candy sugar are ground into paste. It is used to make vaginal suppositories to place intra-vaginally at night for 3 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Dyspareunia and Infertility

Terminalia bellirica(Gaertn.) Roxb. (Beleric myrobalan), Embelia robusta Roxb. (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris L.(French bean), Tamarindus indicaL.(Tamarind), Salvia plebeia R. Brown. (Sage weed), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), mithi kat*, and B. vulgaris, are ground in some sea water to make tablets and dipped in butter and advised to place intra-anally for 3 days for the treatment of dyspareunia, and infertility in Districts Kashmore (Sindh).

Prevention of Miscarriage

B. vulgaris and 3-4 Cassia absus (Pig’s senna) are mashed to make a powder,and used orally 1 tablespoon every morning for 8 months for the prevention miscarriage in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

Leaf of B. vulgaris contains vulvracine, thalicmidine, ursolic acid, delphinidin-3-O-β-d-glucoside, α-glucan, and β-xylan. Aesculetin, ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, β-carotene, chlorogenic acid, chrysanthemin, malic acid, pectin, petunidin-3-Oβ-d-glucoside, and pelargonin were isolated from fruit. Acanthine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, found in root, bark, root bark, stem bark, shoots, and leaf. Bargustanine, berberrubine, protoberberine, berlambine, bervulcine, and lambertine are isolated from root. Berbamine, jatrorrhizine, and columbamine were yielded from root, bark and stem bark. Berberine, another important isoquinoline alkaloid, is islolated from root, root bark, bark, stem bark, root wood, flowers, stem, fruit, and shoot2.

 Chemical Structure

berberis-vulgaris-l-st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

B. vulgarisfruits are used in pestilential fever, diarrhea, and menstrual fluxes. Bark is used for the treatment of dysentery and indigestion3,4.Juice relieves pain of gums and teeth trouble4. Roots and barks are used for ailments of gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, liver, gallbladder, kidney, and urinary tract. It is also used as febrifuge and blood purifier. B. vulgarisis widely used for the treatment of vaginismus, contraction, and tenderness, burning and soreness, cutting pain during coition, scanty menses, leucorrhoea, neuralgia of ovaries and vagina6, low libido7, jaundice, dropsy, congestion of liver and spleen4,improve liver function, antiseptic, and antidiarrhea8.

Various studies have shown that extracts of B. vulgarispossess cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, endocrine, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antipyretic, narcotic antagonist, hypotensive, and diuretic effects2. Berberine, the major component of this plant has been reported for itsantiproliferative, antimigratory, antimicrobial, cholagouge, antidiarrheal, hepatoprotective, antihypertensive, and gentiurinary activities9.

REFERENCES

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berberis_vulgaris.
  2. Imanshahidi, M., and Hosseinzadeh, H. (2008). Pharmacological and Therapeutic Effects of Berberis vulgaris and its Active Constituents, Berberine. Phytotherapy Research, 22, 999–1012.
  3. Pullaiah, T. (2006). Encyclopaedia of World Medicinal Plants, 1, p.310, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.
  4. Bhattacharje, S. K. (2004). Hand Book of Medicinal Plants, p. 58-59, Jain, S., Pointer Publishers, Jaipur, India.
  5. Khare, C.P. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 172, Springer Science Publishers, New York, USA.
  6. http://www.webhomeopath.com/homeopathy/homeopathic-remedies/homeopathy-remedy-Berberis_vulgaris.html.
  7. http://www.aloe-vera-guide.com/female-libido-dysfunction.html.
  8. Li, T. S. C. (2000). Medicinal Plants Culture, Utilization and Phyto Pharmacology, p. 9, CRS Press, New York, USA.
  9. Singh, A., Duggal, S., Kaur, N., and Singh, J. (2010). Berberine: Alkaloid with Wide Spectrum of Pharmacological Activities,Journal of Natural Products, 3, 64-75.
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