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Summary

Description Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume grows to 10–15 m tall. Bark is grayish in color. Leaves are hard and elongated that are 10–15 cm long, and have a decidedly reddish color when young1.

Occurrence

  1. cassia is native to southern China, Bangladesh, Uganda, India, and Vietnam.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Dysmenorrhea

Equal amount of Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume (Chinese cassia), Quercus infectoria Olivier. (Gall oak), Embelia robusta Roxb. (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris L. (French beans), Salvia plebeia R. Brown. (Sage weed), Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Green cardamom), candy sugar, and achro* ground to make powder, and fried in butter oil. Two tablespoon of the paste is taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 3 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea. The same remedy is used to prepare vaginal suppositories from the paste and placed intra-vaginally for 4-5 days for the treatment of menorrhagia and post partum hemorrhage in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Miscarriage

Vaginal suppositories are prepared by grinding equal amount of C. cassia, Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French beans), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and used for inducing miscarriage in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Amenorrhea

One tablespoon powdered mixture of C. cassia, Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), 250 gm of Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French beans), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), and Areca catechu L. (Betel nut) are taken orally with water for 3 days for the treatment of amenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

Barks and leaves of C. cassia contain cinnamldehyde and eugenol. Root bark has camphor. Fruits have cinnamyl acetate and β-caryophyllene. Other compounds which are present in lesser percentages are cinnamic acid, hydroxyl cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol, coumarin, cinnamyl acetate, and borneol2.

 

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

Oil of C. cassia is used in diarrhea, nausea, and flatulence3. Tincture is useful in uterine haemorrhage, and menorrhagia4. Chinese cassia is reported as antiulcer, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, memory enhancing2, antifertility, antioxidant, antiseptic3, abortifacient, anti-itching, antibacterial, fungicide5, antitumor, immunostimulant6, antispasmodic, and antiviral activities7. Chinese cassia oil is a powerful germicide8.

REFERENCES

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinnamomum_cassia.
  2. Vangalapati, M., Satya, S. N., Surya Prakash, D. V., and Avanigadda, S. (2012). A Review on Pharmacological Activities and Clinical Effects of Cinnamon Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological, and Chemical Sciences, 3(1), 653-662.
  3. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-cinnamomum-cassia.htm.
  4. http://botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/c/cassia31.html#med.
  5. Duke, J. A. (2002). Hand Book of Medicinal Herbs, p. 142-143, CRC Press, New York, USA.
  6. Duke, J. A., Duke, P. A. K., and DuCellier, J. L. (2008). Dukes Handbook of Medicinal Plants of the Bible, p. 104-108, CRC Press, New York.
  7. T, S. C. (2000). Plants Culture, Utilization, and Pharmacology, p. 14, CRS Press, New York, USA.
  8. Joshi, S. G. (2000). Medicinal Plants, p. 234, Oxford and IBH Publishing co. Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, India.

 

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

  1. tinctorius is used for the treatment of ulcer3, uterine congestion, cardio-vascular disease, thrombosis4. Flowers are used for the treatment of amenorrhea. Fruits are effective in dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, and dermatosis5. Charred safflower is good for rheumatism and healing sores6. Flowers are used for the treatment of amenorrhea, dysmenorrrhea, fever, and eruptive skin conditions6. Flowers paste is applied on boils. Tea is prepared by using flowers and used for the treatment of fever and skin eruptions. Seed powder mixed with honey is good for bronchial asthma. Flowers are mixed with confection of rose is used as medicine for jaundice, painful menstruation, and flatulence. Seeds decoction is used for curing dysmenorrhea, colic, constipation, and post-partum heamorrhage7.
  2. tinctorius has been reported for anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Hydroxysafflor yellow A shows anticoagulant effects. Safflower seed oil is reported for its effect on osteoprosis. Methanolic extract has significant hepatoprotective activity. Aqueous extracts are reported for antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antihyperlipidemic activties2.

REFERENCES

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Safflower
  2. Asgarpanah, J. (2013). Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Medicinal Properties of Carthamus tinctorius Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, 19(2), 153-159.
  3. Mandade, R., Sreenivas, S. A., and Wanare, R. (2012). Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy.,3(2), p.185-8.
  4. Yu, H., and Xu, L. X. (1997). Separation and Determination of Flavonols in the Flowers of Carthamus tinctorius by RP-HPLC. Yao Xue Xue Bao, 32(2), p.120-2.
  5. Duke, J. A. (2008). Duke’s Handbook of Medicinal Plants of the Bible, p. 80-83, CRC Press, Florida, USA.
  6. Khare, C. P. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants, p 123-124, Springer Science Publishers, New York, USA.
  7. Pullaiah, T. (2006). Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants, 1, 454-455, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.

 

 

 

Cassia absus L.

Botanical Name:                 Cassia absus L.

Kingdom:                              Plantae

Order:                                    Fabales

Family:                                  Fabaceae

Genus:                                   Cassia

Local Name:                         Bankulthi, Chaksu

Sindhi Name:                       Chorr

English Name:                     Pig’s senna

Part Used:                            Leaves and seeds

Flower of Cassia absus L.

Description

Cassia absus L. is tall and erect herb, widely branching and clothed with viscous glandular hairs. Leaflets are present in two pairs and puberulous, petioles are long, and glands are present between the pairs. Petals are broadly obovate and glabrous. Disc is straight with 1-2 mm long bristles. Ovary is densely strigose and sessile1.

Occurrence

  1. absus is native to Pakistan, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Sangam landscape. In Pakistan, it is found in Swat, Punjab, and in Rawalpindi District, at an altitude of 700 metres.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Labor Pain and Miscarriage

A glass of milk is boiled with Cassia absus L. (Pig’s senna), and drink for inducing labor pain in District Sanghar (Sindh). This remedy is also recommended for the prevention of miscarriage.

Prevention of Miscarriage

  1. Powdered absus, Prunus amygdalus Batsch. (Almonds), and Piper nigrum L. (Black pepper) are mixed together, and half tablespoon of the mixture is taken daily.
  2. Powdered absus, and Berberis vulgaris L. (European barberry) are mixed, and used orally one tablespoon of mixture in the morning for the prevention of miscarriage for 8 months in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Labor Pain

  1. Dipped seed of absus in butter is placed intra-anally for inducing labor pain in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  2. Boiled seeds of absus are advised to eat with bread for inducing labor pain in District Tando Allahyar (Sindh).

Conceiving Male Child

  1. Equal quantities of absus, Quercus infectoria Olivier. (Gall oak), Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut), and sugar are ground separately, mixed, and fried in butter oil, and butter. The paste is used for conceiving male child in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  2. absus powder is mixed with butter and used orally during menstruation. This remedy is also used for conceiving male child in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Expulsion of Umbilical Cord and Abortion

Boiled 250 g seeds of C. absus in some water and then sieved. This water is consumed orally for 4-5 days for the expulsion of umbilical cord after the childbirth in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Leucorrhea

Powdered C. absus and jaggery are mixed to make remedy, and used orally with some water for 4 days in a month continued upto 4 months for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Khairpur (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents
Seed of C. absus contains sitosterol-β-D-glucoside, iso-chaksine, and chaksine, while rhein is extracted by the hydrolysis of pod2.

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

Powder of C. absus leaves is used for the treatment of renal stones, anurea, painful urination2, leprosy3, ophthalmia, skin infections4, cough, and blood purification5. It is applied topically for the treatment of leucoderma, and venereal ulcers5. Seeds extract is applied on wounds and sores, especially of the penis6. They are useful in diarrhea, anemia, tumors, haemorrhages7, cathartic in habitual constipation, and to reduce watering of eyes8.

  1. absus is reported for stimulation of respiration, contraction of uterus, fall blood pressure, antibacterial, and curariform activities9.

REFERENCES

  1. Flora of Pakistan: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=242436565
  2. http://www.ayushveda.com/herbs/cassia-absus.htm
  3. Sharma, R. (2003). Medicinal Plants of India – an Encyclopedia, p. 46, Daya Publication House, Delhi, India.
  4. Kasyapa, S. K., and Chand, S. R. (1992). The Useful Plants of India, Ambasta S.S.P., p 109, National Institute of Science Communication, New Delhi, India.
  5. Khare, C. P. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants, 126, Springer Science Publishers, New York, U.S.A.
  6. Kiritikar, K. R., and Basu, B. D. (2005). Indian Medicinal Plants, 478, Basu S. N, Indian Press, Allahbad, India.
  7. Parjapati, N. D., Purohit, S. S., Sharma, A. K., and Kumar, T. (2003). A Hand Book of Medicinal Plants, p. 117-118, Agrobios, Jodhpur, India.
  8. Pullaiah, T. (2006). Encyclopaedia of World Medicinal Plants, p. 460, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.
  9. Kapoor, L. D. (2000). Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants: Herbal Reference Library, 103, CRC press, U.S.A.

 

 

Cassia angustifolia Vahl.

Botanical Name:                 Cassia angustifolia Vahl.

Kingdom:                              Plantae

Order:                                    Fabales

Family:                                   Leguminosae

Genus:                                   Cassia

Local Name:                         Sena

Sindhi Name:                       Son makie

English Name:                     Indian senna

Parts Used:                          Leaves, pods

 

Flowers and leaves of Cassia angustifolia Vahl.

Description

Cassia angustifolia Vahl. is a small erect shrub. Stems are smooth, erect, and pale green. Branches possess around 4-5 pairs of leaves. Leaves are pale yellowish-green in color; elongated, and spear shaped with pointed apex. Flowers are small and yellow in color. Pods are brown and contain 5 to 7 seeds1.

Occurrence

  1. angustifolia is native to India, Pakistan, Arab, and tropical African countries. It is cultivated in India, Pakistan, Egypt, and Sudan. It grows on sandy and stony grounds. In Pakistan, it occurs in Karachi, Sindh, Lasbella, Bhalwa, Gori mandar, and Hussainabad.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Infertility and Strengthening of Uterus

Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (Indian senna), Withania coagulans Dunal. (Vegetable rennet), Anethum sowa Roxb. (Dill), Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek), and fried Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Green cardamom) are boiled. This decoction is taken orally for the treatment of infertility and weak uterus in District Shikarpur (Sindh).

Infertility and Fibroid Uterus

  1. angustifolia leaves, Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce. (Fennel), Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), some flowers of Rosa indica L. (Rose), jaggery, and shar* (a woody form) are boiled in equal quantities in water. Half cup of the decoction is taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach for a week for the treatment of infertility and fibroid uterus in District Jamshoro (Sindh).

Infertility

  1. angustifolia and grass are ground into paste. It is taken orally for the treatment of infertility and dysmenorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  2. Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), angustifolia leaves, Rosa indica L. (Rose) petals, and rock sugar are boiled to prepare an extract that is taken orally for the first 3 days of periods for the treatment of infertility in District Mitiari (Sindh).

 

Infertility and Amenorrhea

Oral extract, prepared by boiling Cassia fistula L. (Golden shower) leaves, Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), C. angustifolia leaves, and Rosa indica (Rose) petals, are used during menstruation cycle for the treatment of infertility and amenorrhea in District Mitiari (Sindh).

Pelvic Inflammation Diseases

  1. angustifolia is ground with Vitis vinifera L. (Grapes) to make oral tablets. One tablet twice a day for a week is given to ladies for the treatment of pelvic inflammation diseases in District Sanghar (Sindh). It is also recommended that rice should be avoided during the treatment.

Leucorrhea

Equal quantities of C. angustifolia, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Quercus infectoria Olivier. (Gall oak), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Areca catechu L. (Betel nut), Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Black cardamom), Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (Ginger), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), and Cuminum cyminum L. (Cumin) is ground into paste. 2 tablespoon of the paste is taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Amenorrhea

  1. angustifolia are boiled in water and sieved. It is taken orally twice a day for 4-5 days for the treatment of amenorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  2. angustifolia and small amount of jaggery are powdered. A tablespoon of the powder is taken orally for first 3 days of periods in summer for the treatment of amenorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  3. angustifolia, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), jaggery, Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet), and butter are boiled in 2 glass of water. This water is consumed orally in the morning for 3-4 days for amenorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  4. angustifolia, Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek), and jaggery are boiled in water. This water is consumed orally twice a day for 5 days for the treatment of amenorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  5. angustifolia is soaked in water. This water is sieved and boiled. Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), jaggery, and 50 mL butter oil is added in it. The mixture is advised taken orally for the treatment of amenorrhea.

Dysmenorrhea

  1. angustifolia Vahl. (Indian sena) and grass are powdered. A tablespoon of this powder is added in 1 glass of water. It is advised to take orally in the morning before taking breakfast for 3 days. This treatment is also used for infertility.

Expulsion of umbilical cord after delivery

Areca catechu (Betel nut), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (Lorad), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Rosa indica (Rose) petals, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), C. angustifolia, and Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint) slug are ground, and then converted into small marble like tablets. It is advised to place a tablet intra-vaginally for 4 days consecutively for expulsion of umbilical cord (recommended to start the therapy after 3 days of delivery) in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).

Infertility, Dysmenorrhea and Improvement of Health after Delivery

Equal amounts of C. angustifolia, Anethum sowa (Dill), Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are ground to make intra-vaginal tablet that are used for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh). It is also used for improvement of health after delivery in same District.

Labor Pain

  1. Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Areca catechu (Betel nut), Symplocos racemosa (Lodh), Salvia plebeia Brown. (English plebeian), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), C. angustifolia, and Terminalia chebula Retz. (Black myrobalau) are powdered together. Vaginal suppositories are made and placed intra-vaginally for inducing labor pain in District Kamber Shahdadkot (Sindh).
  2. Powdered leaves of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), 1-2 Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), and half slug Mentha piperita (Peppermint) are taken. A tablespoon of this powder is added in black tea (tea without milk). This tea is advised for inducing labor pain.

Strenfthening of Uterus and Menstruation Problem

Mixture of mojotal*, mosfa*, soap stone, Embelia ribes Burm. f. (False black pepper), Morus acidosa Griff. (Mulberry), Tamarindus indica L. (Tamarind), Holarrhena antidysenterica L. (Tellichery bark and coneru), Acorus calamus (Sweet flag), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Salvia plebeia (English plebeian), C. angustifolia, Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet), Allium cepa L. (Onion), Prunus amygdalus Batsch. (Almond), chowe oil*, Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. (Nickernuts), crystals sugar, and zalanani khal* are powdered. It is converted into intra-vaginally tablets that are used for the treatment of menstrual problem as well as strengthening of uterus in District Thatta (Sindh).

Scanty Menses

Equal quantities of Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), C. angustifolia, Butea frondosa Roxb. ex. Willd (Palash), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), sufaid wal*, kali wal*, and Tamarindus indica (Tamarind) are soaked for few hours. It is sieved and used orally for 5 days in the morning on an empty stomach for the treatment of scanty menses in District Kamber (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

Roots and seedling part contain mono- and di-glucosides of anthrones, chrysophanol, emodin, β-sitosterol, physicon, aleo-emodin, rhein, chrysophanein, physiconin, gluco-rhein, and sennosides A-C. Chrysophanol, rheum emodin, physicon, aleo-emodin, and rhein were isolated from cotyledon. Pod has aleo-emodin, chrysophanol, rhein and its glucosides, emodin anthranoid of emodin, and aleo-emodin, sennoside A, B, and A1. Sennoside A, B, C, D, G, A1, and III are important constituents, isolated from leaves2.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

  1. angustifolia is used for regulating menstrual cycle and for the treatment of infertility caused by amenorrhea3. It is used in constipation, loss of appetite, hepatomegaly, jaundice, and anemia4. It helps in lowering bowels, increasing the peristaltic movement of the intestines, purifies blood, osteoarthritis, gout, and rheumatoid arthritis. The plant is effective for treating loss of appetite, hepatomegaly, spleenomegaly, malaria, skin diseases, jaundice, constipation, indigestion, and anemia5.

Various anthraquoinones and its glycosides are reported for pharmacological studies. Rhein, one of the most important constituent, has antiviral, antioxidant, and antitumor properties2. C. angustifolia is also reported for hepatoprotective2, antiemetic6, antidiabetic7, antioxidant, antimutagenic8, and antimicrobial activities9. Toxicity and genotoxicity of the plant have also been reported2.

REFERENCES

  1. http://www.iloveindia.com/indian-herbs/cassia-angustifolia.html
  2. Dave, (2012). A Review on Anthraquinones Isolated from Cassia Species and their Applictaion. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 3(3), 291-319.
  3. Wang, X. (2007). Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu, Patent no. 101049497 A 20071010 Patent.
  4. Parjapati, N. D. (2003). A Handbook of Medicinal Plants, p. 118, Agrobios, Jodhpur, India.
  5. http://www.iloveindia.com/indian-herbs/cassia-angustifolia.html
  6. Ahmed, S. (2012). Anti-Emetic Activity of Four Species of Genus Cassia in Chicks. Journal of Pharmacy, 2(3), 380-384.
  7. AL-adhal, A. (2009). The Effect of Cassia angustifolia (Senna) Leaves on the Fasting Blood Sugar in a Sample of Mild Diabetic Yemeni Patients. Yemeni Journal for Medical Sciences, 1(3).
  8. Silva, C. R. (2008). Assessment of Antimutagenic and Genotoxic Potential of Senna (Cassia angustifolia ) Aqueous Extract using In Vitro Assays. Toxicology in Vitro, 22, 212–218.
  9. Parul, S. (2012). Antimicrobial Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Cassia angustifolia Vahl. in vitro International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 3(10), 3814.

 

Cassia fistula L.

Botanical Name:                 Cassia fistula L.

Kingdom:                              Plantae

Order:                                    Fabales

Family:                                   Fabaceae, Leguminaseae

Genus:                                   Cassia

Local Name:                         Amaltas

Sindhi Name:                       Amaltas, Chimkani

English Name:                     Golden shower

Part Used:                            Fruit, leaves, barks, pods, and pulp

 

Flowers of Cassia fistula L.

Description

Cassia fistula Linn. is a medium-sized tree with fast growth. Leaves are deciduous, long, and pinnate. Flowers contain five yellow petals of equal size, and shape. Fruit is a legume with a pungent odor containing several seeds1.

Occurrence

  1. fistula is native to southern Asia, from southern Pakistan, through India to Myanmar and south to Sri Lanka. It is naluratized throughout Pakistan, as well as cultivated as road side tree.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Dysmenorrhea

Oral extract, prepared by boiling Cassia fistula Linn. (Golden shower), 2-3 Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Green cardamom), Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce. (Fennel), Rosa indica L. (Rose) petals, jaggery, and 2 tablespoon of butter oil are boiled in 2 glass of water until one glass remains. It is consumed orally in the morning for 3 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Labor Pain

Infusions of C. fistula leaves are given orally for inducing labor pain in District Umerkot (Sindh).

Infertility and Amenorrhea

Oral extract, prepared by boiling C. fistula leaves; Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Cassia angustifolia (Indian senna) leaves, and Rosa indica (Rose) petals are taken. It is advised taken orally for first 3 days of periods for the treatment of infertility. At a same time, intra-vaginal suppositories are prepared by dipping cotton ball in black glycerin and used during menstruation cycle for the treatment of infertility and amenorrhea in District Mitiari (Sindh).

Infertility

Intra-vaginal tablets, prepared with C. fistula seed’s paste, are used on the last day of menstruation cycle for the treatment of infertility in District Umerkot (Sindh).

 

Chemical Constituents

Pod pulp of C. fistula contains anthraquinone glycosides, sennosides A and B, rhein, barbaloin, and aloin. Seeds yielded galactomannan free sugars, free amino acids, chrysophanol, and 5-(2-hydroxymethoxymethyl) furfural. Flowers gave ceryl alcohol, kaempferol, bianthraquinone glycoside, and fistulin. Leaves contain free rhein, its glycosides- sennosides A and B.
Anthraquinone, tannin, oxyanthraquinone, rhein, and volatile oils were isolated from leaves and flowers. Plant also contains fistulic acid, aurantiamide acetate, proanthocyanidin CF1, β sitosterol, 7-methylphyscion, physicion, betulinic acid, and β-sitosterol2.

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

Alcoholic extract of root bark is effective in backwart fever. Leaves juice is used for the treatment of ringworm and dropsical swelling. Powder or decoction of the bark is useful in syphilis and heart diseases3. Root extract is thought to have a blood sugar lowering effect4. Burnt pod ashes, salt, and honey mixture are used to relieve cough5. Oil mixed with leaves and barks are applied externally to insect bites. Pulp is advised in liver disorders3, constipation, colic, chlorosis, and urinary disorders6.

Fruits are used as abortifacient, and for anti-inflammatory activities7. Methanolic extract of leaves showed antitussive and wound healing activities. Methanolic extract of seeds had CNS and antitumor activities.  Methanol extract of buds showed antipyretic action. Methanol extracts of stem bark exhibited antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extract of leaves has hepatopreotective activity. Petroleum ether extract of seeds possessed anti-implantation activity8.

 

REFERENCES

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cassia_fistula
  2. Danish, M., Singh, P., Jha, K. K., and Mishra, G. (2011). Cassia fistula (Amulthus)- An Important Medicinal Plant: A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Properties. Journal of National Production and Plant Resources, 1(1), 101-118.
  3. (2007). The Wealth of India, First Supplement Series (Raw Materials), 3(Ca-Ci), 340-342, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources, CSIR, India.
  4. (2007). The Wealth of India, First Supplement Series (Raw Materials), 1(A-Ci), 223-224, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources, CSIR, 1st Supplementary series, India.
  5. Gupta, R. K. (2010). Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 116-117, CBS Publishers and Distributors, 1st edition, India.
  6. Khare, C. P. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants, 128, Springer Science Publisher, New York, USA.
  7. Phondke, G. P. (1992). The Wealth of India, 3(Ca-Cl), 340-341, Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR, Dr. K. S. Kirshnan Marg, New Delhi, India.
  8. Bhalerao, S. A. (2012). Traditional Medicinal Uses, Phytochemical Profile, and Pharmacological Activities of Cassia fistula International Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 1(5), 79-84.

 

 

Cicer arietinum L.

Botanical Name:                 Cicer arietinum L.

Kingdom:                              Plantae

Order:                                    Fabales

Family:                                  Fabaceae

Genus:                                   Cicer

Local Name:                         Chana

Sindhi Name:                       Chola

English Name:                     Chickpea

Part Used:                            Seeds and leaves

Fruits of Cicer arietinum L.

Description

Cicer arietinum L. grows up to 20–50 cm high and has small feathery leaves on either side of the stem. Flowers are white with blue, violet, or pink veins. Chickpeas have one seedpod containing two or three peas1.

Occurrence

  1. arietinum are grown in the Mediterranean, western Asia, Pakistan, India, and Australia. In Pakistan, it is cultivated in Punjab, Sindh, and Khyber Pkhatoonkhawa.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Strengthening of Uterus

Paste of ground Cicer arietinum L. (Chickpea), Prunus amygdalus Batsch. (Almond), Juglans regia L. (Walnut), Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut), Piper nigrum L. (Black pepper), Tamarindus indica L. (Tamarind), monhmakh*, Embelia robusta Roxb. (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris L. (French beans), and Salvia plebeia R. Brown. (Sage weed) prepared. 2 tablespoon of the paste is taken orally in the morning for a month (if required continue the treatment for 5 months) for strengthening of uterus in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Lactation

  1. arietinum, Juglans regia (Walnut), and Prunus amygdalus (Almond) are ground, and egg is added to make paste. 2 tablespoon of the paste is taken orally in the morning for 7-8 days for improving lactation in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Abortion, Menorrhagia, and Post Partum Hemorrhage

Equal amount of C. arietinum, candy sugar, Cocos nucifera (Coconut), crystal sugar, Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce. (Fennel), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), and fuller’s earth are ground. A tablespoon of the powder is taken orally on an empty stomach for 3-4 days for inducing abortion, menorrhagia, and post partum hemorrhage in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Pelvic Inflammation Diseases

  1. arietinum, Anethum sowa Roxb. (Dill), Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris L. (French bean), Acorus calamus L. (Sweet flag), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Green cardamom), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), sonu ghero*, Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schard. (Bitter apple), Holarrhena antidysenterica L. (Tellichery bark and coneru), mosfai, and red earth are ground in equal quantities to make suppositories, and placed intra-vaginally at night for 10 day (if symptoms persist continue for 3 weeks) for the treatment of pelvic inflammation diseases in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Prolapsed Uterus

  1. Powdered grains of arietinum, Lallemantia royleana Benth. (Black psyllium), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Anethum sowa (Dill), and burnt camel bones are mixed together to prepare vaginal suppositories. It is advised to place intra-vaginally for 7 nights regularly for the treatment of prolapsed uterus in District Khairpur (Sindh).
  2. Soap stone, mandrasi*, and Cichorium intybus (Chicory) are tied in a cloth together, and placed intra-vaginally for 3 days. After delivery, cotton swab dipped in butter oil and embedded Origanum vulgare (Oregano) is placed intra-vaginally for 3 days for improvement of ladies health after delivey in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

  1. arietinum contains β-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and α-carotene. Biochanin A, formononetin, daidzein, genistein, matairesinol, and secoisolariciresinol are phenolic compounds found in the plant. Carbohydrates including raffinose, stachyose, verbascose (traces), ciceritol, manninotriose, and pinito. Amino acids, water-soluble vitamins, sterols, and tocopherols are present in chickpea seeds2.

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

Leaves paste of C. arietinum are used against dyspepsia. Water extract of fresh plant is used for the treatment of dysmenorrhea3. Seeds are used in ayuvedic medicines in vitiated condition of pitta, bronchitis, inflammations, skin diseases3, liver and spleen enlargement, complaints of chest, throat troubles, foul mouth, and fever4. Germinated gram used as a protein adjunct to starchy diets9 and prophylactic against deficiency diseases5. C. arietinum extract is also used for the prevention of obesity and diabetes type II6. C. arietinum extract is used as a supplement or a medicament for the treatment/alleviation or prevention of cardiovascular disease7.

  1. arietinum has reported for estrogenic8, antidiarrheal9, hemolytic10, anti-inflammatory11, anthelminthic, antianemic, antibilious, anticoronary, antidementic, antidepressant, antigingivitic, antigout, antiinfertility, antiplaque, antipolyp, antipsychotic, antipyretic, and antispina bifida activities12.

REFERENCES

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chickpea.
  2. Jukanti, A. K. (2012). Nutritional Quality and Health Benefits of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum): A Review. British Journal of Nutrition, 108(1), S11-S26.
  3. Kiritikar, K. R., and Basu, B. D. (2005). Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 478, Basu S. N, Indian Press, Allahabad, India.
  4. Kan, A. (2010). In Vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Cicer arietinum L (Chickpea). Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 9(5), 475-481.
  5. Bapuso, V. Y. (2009). Antihyperglycaemic Activity of Cicer arietinum Pharmacologyonline, 3, 748-757.
  6. Gu, Y., Yue, X., and Yang, Y. (2006), Patent no WO 2006094450 A1 20060914.
  7. Morawala-Patell, V., Vyas D, H., Jain, R.,and Danapur, V., (2010) Patent no IN 2007CH02597 A 20100319
  8. Hai-rong, Ma. (2013). Assessment of the Estrogenic Activities of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) Sprout Isoflavone Extract in Ovariectomized Rats. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 34, 380–386.
  9. Dalal, K. (2011). Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Roots of Cicer arietinum International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, 2(1), 268-270.
  10. Hashim, F. J. (2014). Hemolytic Activity of Cicer arietinum Extracts by Two Extraction Techniques. Asian Journal of Pharmaceuticals and Clinical Research, 7(1), 141-145.
  11. Sandeep, D. (2012). Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Cicer arietinum Seed Extracts. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 5(1), 64-68.
  12. Duke, J. A. (1929). Handbook of Medicinal Herb,182, CRC Press, U.S.A.

 

 

Cichorium intybus L.

Botanical Name:                 Cichorium intybus L.

Kingdom:                              Plantae 

Order:                                    Asterales

Family:                                   Asteraceae

Genus:                                   Cichorium

Local Name:                         Kasni

Sindhi Name:                       Kasni

English Name:                     Chicory

Flower and leaves of

Cichorium intybus L.

Parts Used:                          Roots and flower

 

Description

Cichorium intybus L. is erect and perennial herb that is up to 90 cm tall. Leaves are oblanceolate or lanceolate, oblong, and form rosette. Flowers are auxillary or terminal form, and bright blue in color. Fruits are crowned with a ring of pappus scales1.

Occurrence

  1. intybus lives as a wild plant on roadsides in its native Europe, North America, and Australia. In Pakistan, it is distributed throughout irrigated areas of Sindh.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

One tablespoon of ground Cichorium intybus L. (Chicory), Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (Belliric myrobalau), Polygonum bistorta L. (Bistort), peel and seeds of Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate), Terminalia chebula Retz. (Black myrobalau), crystal sugar, Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Green cardamom), Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce. (Fennel), and Rosa indica L. (Rose) petals are added to 250 mL water, and given orally to a ladies for the treatment of polymenorrhea and leucorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh). In the same District, this remedy is consumed orally for 3 days in the morning on an empty stomach for strengthening of uterus, leucorrhea, polymenorrhea and prevention of miscarriage. C. intybus tied in a cloth alongwith soapstone, and mandrasi* are placed intra-vaginally for 3 days for the treatment of prolapsed uterus as well as for improvement of health after childbirth in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

Roots of C. intybus contain sonchusides A and C, cytokinin, crepidiase B, cichoriolide A, cichoriosides B and C, ribosylzeatin, lactucopicrin, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, isochlorogenic, lactucin, and chicoric acids. Roots also produce latex, lactucopictin, intybin, cichorin, taraxasteral, and alkaloids. Aerial part contains inulin, fructose, resin, cichorin, and esculetin2.

Caffeic acid, cichoric acid, isorhamnetine, apigenin, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, and selenium compounds are found in leaves. Cynadin-3-malonylglucoside, delphinidin 3,5-di-O-(6-O-malonyl-β-D-glucoside), delphinidin 3,5-di-Oβ-D-glucoside, and 3-Op-coumaroyl quinic acid are found in flowers3.
Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

 

Leaves paste of C. intybus is applied to insect bites. Boiled roots are mixed with vinegar solution, and effective in reducing tooth sensitivity. Juice of whole plant is used for the treatment of kidney disorders. Extract of chicory plant, mixed with zinc oxide and vinegar solution, are applied to the body as a moisturizer4.

Various studies have confirmed pharmacological properties of C. intybus as antimicrobial3, hepatoprotective5, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic6, antidiabetic7, analgesic, and antinociceptive8. It is also reported for allergic reactions9.

REFERENCES

  1. Pullaiah, T. (2006). Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants, 2, 549-550, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.
  2. http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Herbal_-_HMPC_assessment_report/2013/03/WC500140398.pdf
  3. Nandagopal, S., and Kumari, R. B. D. (2007). “Phytochemical and Antibacterial Studies of Chicory (Cichorium intybus)-A Multipurpose Medicinal Plant”. Advances in Biological Research, 1(1-2), 17–21.
  4. Zaman, R. (2013). A Review Article of Beekhe Kasni (Cichorium intybus) its Traditional Uses and Pharmacological Actions. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2(8), 1-4.
  5. Gilani, A. H., and Janbaz, K. H. (1994). “Evaluation of the Liver Protective Potential of Cichorium Intybus Seed Extract on Acetaminophen and CC14-Induced Damage”. Phytomedicine, 1(3), 193–197.
  6. Pushparaj, P. N., Low, H. K., Manikandan, J., Tan, B. K. H., and Tan, C. H. (2007). “Anti-diabetic Effects of Cichorium intybus in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 111(2), 430–434.
  7. Ghamarian, A., Abdollahi, M., Su, X., Amiri, A., Ahadi, A., and Nowrouzi, A. (2012). “Effect of Chicory Seed Extract on Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) and Metabolic Profile in Early and Late Stage Diabetic Rats,” DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 20, 56–65.
  8. Wesołowska, A., Nikiforuk, A., Michalska, K., Kisiel, W., and Chojnacka-Wójcik, E. (2006). “Analgesic and Sedative Activities of Lactucin and Some Lactucin-Like Guaianolides in Mice”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 107(2), 254–258.
  9. Kim, H. M., Kim, H. W., and Lyu, Y. S. (1999). “Inhibitory Effect of Mast Cell-Mediated Immediate-Type Allergic Reactions By Cichorium intybus”. Pharmacological Research, 40(1), 61–65.

 


 

Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume

Botanical Name:                 Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume

Kingdom:                             Plantae

Order:                                    Laurales

Family:                                  Lauraceae

Genus:                                   Cinnamomum

Local Name:                         Tejpat

Sindhi Name:                       Kahi kehro

English Name:                     Chinese cassia

Part Used:                            Bark

 

Leaves of Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume.

Description

Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume grows to 10–15 m tall. Bark is grayish in color. Leaves are hard and elongated that are 10–15 cm long, and have a decidedly reddish color when young1.

Occurrence

  1. cassia is native to southern China, Bangladesh, Uganda, India, and Vietnam.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Dysmenorrhea

Equal amount of Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume (Chinese cassia), Quercus infectoria Olivier. (Gall oak), Embelia robusta Roxb. (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris L. (French beans), Salvia plebeia R. Brown. (Sage weed), Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Green cardamom), candy sugar, and achro* ground to make powder, and fried in butter oil. Two tablespoon of the paste is taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 3 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea. The same remedy is used to prepare vaginal suppositories from the paste and placed intra-vaginally for 4-5 days for the treatment of menorrhagia and post partum hemorrhage in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Miscarriage

Vaginal suppositories are prepared by grinding equal amount of C. cassia, Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French beans), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and used for inducing miscarriage in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Amenorrhea

One tablespoon powdered mixture of C. cassia, Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), 250 gm of Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French beans), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), and Areca catechu L. (Betel nut) are taken orally with water for 3 days for the treatment of amenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

Barks and leaves of C. cassia contain cinnamldehyde and eugenol. Root bark has camphor. Fruits have cinnamyl acetate and β-caryophyllene. Other compounds which are present in lesser percentages are cinnamic acid, hydroxyl cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol, coumarin, cinnamyl acetate, and borneol2.

 

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

Oil of C. cassia is used in diarrhea, nausea, and flatulence3. Tincture is useful in uterine haemorrhage, and menorrhagia4. Chinese cassia is reported as antiulcer, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, memory enhancing2, antifertility, antioxidant, antiseptic3, abortifacient, anti-itching, antibacterial, fungicide5, antitumor, immunostimulant6, antispasmodic, and antiviral activities7. Chinese cassia oil is a powerful germicide8.

REFERENCES

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinnamomum_cassia.
  2. Vangalapati, M., Satya, S. N., Surya Prakash, D. V., and Avanigadda, S. (2012). A Review on Pharmacological Activities and Clinical Effects of Cinnamon Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological, and Chemical Sciences, 3(1), 653-662.
  3. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-cinnamomum-cassia.htm.
  4. http://botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/c/cassia31.html#med.
  5. Duke, J. A. (2002). Hand Book of Medicinal Herbs, p. 142-143, CRC Press, New York, USA.
  6. Duke, J. A., Duke, P. A. K., and DuCellier, J. L. (2008). Dukes Handbook of Medicinal Plants of the Bible, p. 104-108, CRC Press, New York.
  7. T, S. C. (2000). Plants Culture, Utilization, and Pharmacology, p. 14, CRS Press, New York, USA.
  8. Joshi, S. G. (2000). Medicinal Plants, p. 234, Oxford and IBH Publishing co. Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, India.

 


 

Cinnamomum zeylanicum Garcin ex Blume

Botanical Name:                 Cinnamomum zeylanicum Garcin ex Blume.

Kingdom:                              Plantae

Order:                                    Laurales

Family:                                  Lauraceae

Genus:                                   Cinnamomum

Local Name:                         Dar chini

Sindhi Name:                       Dalchini

English Name:                    True cinnamomum

Part Used:                            Bark

Leaves of Cinnamomum

zeylanicum Garcin ex Blume

 

 

Description

Cinnamomum zeylanicum Garcin ex Blume are 10–15 metres tall tree. Leaves are ovate-oblong in shape and dark glossy green. Flowers are arranged in panicles, greenish in color, and have a distinct odor. Fruits are pulpy, black in color, and contain single seed1.

Occurrence

  1. zeylanicum is native to Sri Lanka, and southeastern coast of India.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Leucorrhea and dysmenorrhea

Oral extract, prepared by boiling 5-6 Cinnamomum zeylanicum Garcin ex Blume (True cinnamomum), two tablespoon of Trachyspermum ammi L. (Bishop’s weed), Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce. (Fennel), Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Black cardamom), and Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Green cardamom) in 4 glass of water, and used for 3 days for the treatment of leucorrhea, and dysmenorrhea in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Labor Pain

Equal amount of Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Black cardamom), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), jaggery, and  C. zeylanicum are boiled in water. This water is consumed orally to the expecting lady 3 times in a day. Then Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint) slug is placed intra-vaginally and candy sugar dipped in butter oil is placed intra-anally for inducing labor pain in District Shahdadkot (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

A variety of active chemicals constituents have been found in C. zeylanicum which have medicinal potential. Barks and leaves contain cinnamldehyde and eugenol. Root bark contains camphor. Fruits have a trans-cinnamyl acetate and β-caryophyllene. Terpene hydrocarbons, α-bergamotene, α-copaene, and oxygenated terpenoids have been found in buds. (E)-Cinnamyl acetate, trans-α-bergamotene, and caryophyllene oxide have been isolated from flower2.
Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

Pleasant aroma of C. zeylanicum oil is effective for mind relaxation and often used for the treatment of hypertension. Cinnamon bark has cholesterol lowering effects3. Plant is used with Zingiber officinale (Ginger) for the stimulation of circulation, and digestion4.

  1. zeylanicum is reported for antimicrobial5, anti-inflammatory6, immunomodulatory7, hypotensive, vasorelaxant8, antivenom9, antiulcer, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic activities10.

REFERENCES

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinnamomum_verum
  2. Vangalapati, M. (2012). A Review on Pharmacological Activities and Clinical effects of Cinnamon Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 3(1), 653-663.
  3. Azura Binti Sulaiman, S. (2013). Extraction of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum by Various Methods as a Perfume Oil,3, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang.
  4. Rekha, M. (2010). Effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Syzygium cumini on Gestational Diabetic Rats, p.117, Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Educational and Research Institute University, Chennai, India.
  5. Gupta, C., Amar, P., Ramesh, C., Kumari, U., and Kumari, A. (2008). Comparative Analysis of the Antimicrobial Activity of Cinnamon Oil and Cinnamon Extract on Some Food-Borne Microbes. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 2(9), 247-251.
  6. Joshi, K., Awte, S., Bhatnagar, P., Walunj, S., Gupta, R., Joshi, S., Sabharwal, S., and Bani, S. (2010). Cinnamomum zeylanicum Extract Inhibits Proinflammatory Cytokine Tnfµ: In Vitro and In Vivo Research of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 2(2), 14-21.
  7. Niphade, S. R., and Asad, M. (2009). Immunomodulatory Activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Pharmaceutical Biology, 47(12), 1168-1173.
  8. Wansi, S. L., and Nyadjeu, P. (2007). Blood Pressure Lowering Effect of the Ethanol Extract from the Stembark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Lauraceae) in Rats. Pharmacologyonline, 3, 166-176.
  9. Mitul, P. (2013). Anti-Venom Activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Extracts Against Naja kaouthia Snake Venom. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Sciences, 2(3).
  10. Jakhetia, V. (2010). Cinnamon: A Pharmacological Review, Journal of Advance Science Research, 1(2), 19-23.


 

Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.

 

Botanical Name:                 Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.

Kingdom:                              Plantae

Order:                                    Violales

Family:                                   Cucurbitaceae

Genus:                                   Citrullus

Local Name:                         Thumba

Sindhi Name:                       Troh

English Name:                     Bitter apple, Bitter cucumber

Parts Used:                          Fruits

 

Fruits and leaves of Citrullus colocynthis

(L.) Schrad.

Description

Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. is perennial trailing herb. Leaves are palmate, angular, and lobed. Stems are vine-like, and spreaded in all direction. Flowers are monoecious, and yellow in color. Fruits are smooth, spherical, and bitter in taste. Seeds are grey, long, wide, and nutty-flavored1.

Occurrence

  1. colocynthis is widely found in the Mediterranean Europe, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, India, and North Africa. In Pakistan, it is growing wild in diverse places such as Karachi, Hyderabad, Fort Sandeman, Loralai, Noshki, Panjgur, Gwadar, and Tharparker.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Pelvic Inflammation Diseases

Cicer arietinum L. (Chickpea), Anethum sowa Roxb. (Dill), Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Embelia robusta Roxb. (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris L. (French bean), Acorus calamus L. (Sweet flag), Tamarindus indica L. (Tamarind), Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Green cardamom), Salvia plebeia R. Brown. (Sage weed), sonu ghero, Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Bitter apple), Holarrhena antidysenterica L. (Tellichery bark and coneru), mosfai*, and red earth are ground in equal quantities to make vaginal suppositories. It is placed intra-vaginally at night for 10 days regularly (continue for 3 weeks if not cured) for the treatment of pelvic inflammation diseases in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Conceiving Male Child

Fruits of C. colocynthis are covered in cow dung and burnt. Soft mass of burnt fruit is boiled in cow’s milk, and then sieved. Cuminum cyminum L. (Cumin), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and rock sugar is then added in milk, and cooked till it becomes thick. Intra-anal suppositories are prepared from this mixture and given to the ladies for conceiving male child in District Matiari (Sindh).

Abortion

Root of C. colocynthis is placed intra-vaginally for inducing abortion in District Sukkur (Sindh).

Abortion and Expulsion of Umbilical Cord

Powder of dried fruits of C. colocynthis, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), crystal sugar, and aryo* are cooked in little water, and prepared vaginal suppositories. It is placed intra-vaginally for 3 days for inducing abortion in District Sukkur (Sindh). In the same District, the above said remedy is used for expulsion of umbilical cord.

Amenorrhea

  1. Alum (Phitkari) is added in fresh fruits of colocynthis by making hole, dried it for few days, and separate alum. Ground lordh*, raswal*, and alum are heated, and used to make intra-vaginal tablets. These tablets are used for the treatment of amenorrhea in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  2. Capsules filled with paste of colocynthis are used orally thrice a day for 15 days for the treatment of amenorrhea in District Umerkot (Sindh).

Infertility

Vaginal suppositories, prepared by grinding C. colocynthis, Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Cannabis sativa L. (Marijuana), Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint), Anethum sowa (Dill), Acorus calamus L. (Sweet flag), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), gawatho* (Purchased from pansar), and mosfai. It is placed intra-vaginally in the morning and removed at night for 3 days after periods for the treatment of infertility in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Infertility and retroverty uterus

Roots of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Bitter apple), Rubia cordifolia L. (Common madder), and Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Aloe) are soaked in water in a clay bowl overnight, and then ground to make suppositories. It is advised to place intra-vaginally for the treatment of retroverty uterus and infertility in District Tando Adam (Sindh).

Shrinking of abdominal size

Cuminum cyminum L. (Cumin), Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce. (Fennel), Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Terminalia chebula Retz. (Balck myrobalau), Ricinus communis L. (Castor) seeds, and Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Bitter apple) are burnt on heating, and inner soft mass is taken out. It is then ground to make suppositories. The suppository is advised to place intra-anally at night on alternate days in the District Tharparkar (Sindh). This treatment will cause diarrhea and abdomen will be shrinked.

Chemical Constituents

Roots contain elaterin, hemtriacontane, and saponins. Fruit pulp yielded colocynthin, colocynthein, colocynthetin, and pectin gum. Seeds contain fatty acids, proteins, vitamins, and minerals2.

 

 

 

 

 
Aerial parts and fruits contain quercetin, iso-vitexin, iso-orentine, and iso-oretine-3-methyl ether. Colocynthosides A and B, cucurbitacin E, 2-O-β-D-glcoside and its aglycone, 2-O-β-D-glcopyranosyl-cucurbitacin B, and 2,25-di-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl cucurbitacin L were found in fruits2.

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

  1. colocynthis is used for the treatment of obstruction of the menses1. Some women used it in the beginning of pregnancy to induce abortion1. Seed oil is thought to be useful in hair growth and for maintaining hair color. Powder of C. colocynthis root, Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger), and jaggery are mixed together, and applied on joint inflammations. Fruits and roots act as antidote against the snake venom3. Dried fruits pulp is perferred for the treatment of fever, constipation, dropsy, and biliousness4. Fruit pulp is also used for the treatment of piles, and varicose veins5.
  2. colocynthis is reported for anti-inflammatory, mosquito larvicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, hypolipidemic, antidiabetic, free radical scavenging, hypolipidaemic, and antialopecia activities2.

REFERENCES

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/citrullus-colocynthis.
  2. Pravin, B. (2013). Review on Citrullus colocynthis. International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Chemistry, 3(1), 46-53.
  3. Joshi, S. G. (2000). Medicinal Plants, p. 153, Oxford and IBH Publishers, New Delhi, India.
  4. Dhiman, A. K. (2006). Ayurvedic Drug Plants, p. 160, Daya Publishers, New Delhi, India.
  5. Pullaiah, T. (2006). Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants, 2, 572, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.

 

 

Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.)

Botanical Name:                 Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.)

Kingdom:                              Plantae

Order:                                    Cucurbitales

Family:                                  Cucurbitaceae

Genus:                                   Citrullus

Local Name:                         Tarbooz

Sindhi Name:                       Hindaro, Chhaen

English Name:                     Watermelon

Fruit and leaves of Citrullus

 lanatus (Thunb.)

Part Used:                            Seeds and fruits

 

Description

Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) is an annual, climber, or trailer vine. Leaves are ovate with long-hispid veins and veinlets. Upper surface of leaves are smooth with transluscent dots or scabrous, 3-5-lobed, and obtuse. Flower has long pedicel, and broad and lanceolate calyx. Fruits are large, hairy, and green mottled with paler green, and yellowish longitudinal stripes. Seeds are ovate, board, long, and of different shades1.

Occurrence

  1. lanatus is native of the Kalahari region in Pakistan. It is cultivated throughout the Tropics.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Seeds of Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) (Watermelon) are placed intra-vaginally at night and removed after 2 days for the treatment of infertility in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

  1. lanatus is rich in water, citrulline, cucurbitacin, deiminase, sugarcane, glucose, calcium, and other minerals. Watermelon has carotenoids, and lycopene. Carotenoids in watermelon include lycopene, phytofluene, phytoene, glutathione, β-carotene, lutein, and neurosporene2.

 

 

 

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

  1. lanatus pulp is cooling and refreshing. Seeds are used in urinary infection3. Fruit juice is used in stranguary, and urinary complaints. Dried fruit rinds are applied to sores. Fruits juice of C. lanatus mixed with fresh lime juice, is effective against dehydration, diarrhea, dysentery, colitis, nausea, vomiting, and chronic bronchitis. Milky juice of seeds is useful in high blood pressure, scanty urination, and tuberculosis4.

Seeds contain fatty acids, phenolics, and triterpenoids which are responsible for many pharmacological activities, such as antimicrobial5, anti-inflammatory6, antiulcerogenic7, liver protective8, antioxidant9, antidiabetic10, laxative11, and prostate hyperplasia12.

REFERENCES

  1. Flora of Pakistan:http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=200022609.
  2. Rahman, H. (2013). A Review on Ethnobotany, Phytochemisrty and Pharmacology of Citrullus lanatus International Research Journal of Pharmacy and Applied Science, 3(2), 77-81.
  3. Khare, C. P. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 153, Springer Science Publishers, New Delhi, India.
  4. Pullaiah, T. (2006). Encyclopaedia of World Medicinal Plants, 2, p. 571-573, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.
  5. Elsir, L., and Hassan, A. (2011). In-Vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Chloroformic, Hexane and Ethanolic Extracts of Citrullus lanatus citroides. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5(8), 1338-1344.
  6. Madhavi, P., Maruthi, R., Kamala, V., Habibur Rahman, M., and Eswaraiah, C. (2012). Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrullus lanatus Seed Oil by In-Vivo and In-Vitro International Research Journal of Pharmacology and Applied Sciences, 2(4), 104-108.
  7. Altas, S., Kızıl, G., Kızıl, M., Ketani, A., and Parvez, I. H. (2011). Protective Effect of Diyarbakır Watermelon Juice on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Toxicity in Rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 49, 2433–2438.
  8. Madhavi, P., Vakati, K., and Rahman, H. (2012). Hepatoprotective Activity of Citrullus lanatus Seed Oil on CCl4 Induced Liver Damage in Rats. Scholars Academic Journal of Pharmacy, 1(1), 30-33.
  9. Gill, N. S. (2011). Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Citrullus lanatus Seed Extract in Rats. Latin American Journal of Pharmacy, 30(3), 429-34.
  10. Jiyun, A., Wonhee, C., Suna, K., and Taeyoul, H. (2011). Anti-Diabetic Effect of Watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice. Food Science and Biotechnology, 20(1), 251-254.
  11. Swapnil, S., Sarvesh, P., Jaya, D., and Amita, T. (2011). First Report on Laxative Activity of Citrullus lanatus. Pharmacology online, 2, 790-797.
  12. Adesanya, A., Olayemi, O. O., Demetrius, O. O., Olatoye, O. J., and Kehinde, A. A. (2011). Effects of Methanolic Extract of Citrullus lanatus Seed on Experimentally Induced Prostatic Hyperplasia. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 1(4), 171-179.


 

Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.

Botanical Name:                 Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.

Kingdom:                              Plantae

Order:                                    Sapindales

Family:                                  Rutaceae

Genus:                                   Citrus

Local Name:                         Lemu

Sindhi Name:                       Lemo

English Name:                     Lemon

Part Used:                            Fruit

Flower, leaves, and fruit of Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f.

 

 

Description

Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. is a spinous shrub. Leaves are elliptic to ovate, serrulate, and acute to acuminate. Leaves are connected to the petiole, which is narrowly winged. Flowers are bisexual or male. Petals are white with a purple tinge. Fruits are oblong or rounded, mamillate, and yellow in color. Pulp is abundant and strongly acid1.

Occurrence

  1. limon is native to the foothills of the Himalayas. It is cultivated in the plains of the Punjab, Sind, and Baluchistan.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Contraception

Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. (Lemon) juice is used for permenent contraception in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).

Dysmenorrhea

Oral extract, prepared by mixing C. limon juice with ground Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce. (Fennel) seeds, Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Nutmeg), and Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint) slug. One tablespoon of the extract is taken orally in the morning for 5 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Jamshoro (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

Main components of the plant are D-limonene, citral, nonanal, decanal, dodecanal, linalyl acetate, geranyl acetate, citronelyl acetate, naringine, neohesperidine, rutin, hesperidine, and eriocritin2. Lemon fruit is a rich source of nutrients, including flavonoids, citric acid, vitamin C, and minerals. Hesperidin, eriocitrin, diosmetin 6,8-di-C-glucoside, diosmin, and vicenin-2 are the main compounds present3.
Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

 

  1. limon juice is used for the treatment of leprosy, white spots2, scurvy, rheumatism, dysentery, and diarrhea4. Lemon oil is rubifacient when applied externally. Hypertrophy is cured by the use of fruit in the form of prickles5. Fruit juice is drink in burning sensation, and allaying the thrust6.

Flavonoids present in citrus fruits exhibits a wide variety of promising biological properties including antinociceptive5, antioxidant4,5, antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antiviral, antiproliferative, cardioprotective, antitumor, antimicrobial6, antidiabetic7, antiulcers8, CNS depressant9, and hepatoprotective activities10.

REFERENCES

  1. Flora of Pakistan: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=242313269
  2. http://www.newpharma.ch/sites/default/files/newpharma/pdf/New_Pharma_Citrus_limonum_monograph_eng_0507.pdf.
  3. Naim, M. (2012). A Comparative Study of Antidiabetic Activity of Hexane-Extract of Lemon Peel (Limon citrus) and Glimepiride in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats. Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal, 15(2), 131-134.
  4. Yekeler, F. Z., Ozyurek, H., and Tamer, C. E. (2013). A Functional Beverage: Lemonade. International Journal of Biological, Veterinary, Agricultural and Food Engineering, 7, 7.
  5. Pullaiah, T. (2006). Encyclopaedia of World Medicinal Plants, 2, p. 578, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.
  6. Dhiman, A. K. (2006). Ayurvedic Drug Plants, p. 259, Daya Publishers, New Delhi, India.
  7. Campêlo, L. M. L. (2011). Antioxidant and Antinociceptive Effects of Citrus limon Essential Oil in Mice. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology,Article ID 678673.
  8. Kumar, A., Narayani, M., Subanthini, A., and Jayakumar, M. (2011). Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruits Peel Utilization of Fruit Waste. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 3(6), 5414-5421.
  9. Baquar, S. R. (1989). Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Pakistan, p. 112, Printas, Karachi, Pakistan.
  10. Bhavitavya, B. (2012). Antiulcer Activity of Lemon (Citrus limon) Fruit Juice and its Interaction with Conventionally Used Antiulcer Drugs in Rats. Natural Product Journal, 2(1), 61-68.
  11. Campêlo, L. M. L. (2011). Evaluation of Central Nervous System Effects of Citrus limon Essential Oil in Mice. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 21(4).
  12. Bhavsar, S. K. (2007). Investigation into Hepatoprotective Activity of Citrus limon. Pharmaceutical Biology, 45(4), 303-311.

 

 

Cocos nucifera L.

Botanical Name:                 Cocos nucifera L.

Kingdom:                              Plantae

Order:                                    Arecales

Family:                                   Arecaceae

Genus:                                   Cocos

Local Name:                         Naryal, Khopra

Sindhi Name:                       Dhungi

English Name:                     Coconut

 Tree and fruits of Cocos nucifera L.

Part Used:                            Roots and seeds

 

Description

Cocos nucifera L. is a large palm, growing up to 30 meters tall. Leaves are pinnate and about 4–6 meters long. Botanically, fruit is a drupe1, very large, and covered with thick fibrous mass. Inner wall is lined by white endosperm matter, and a milky fluid present inside the fruit, contains cytokinins1,2.

Occurrence

  1. nuciferais grown mainly in Pakistan, Philippines, Vietnam, India, China, and Sri Lanka. It is scattered in the areas near the seashore. In Pakistan, it is found in the coastal areas of Sindh and Baluchistan.

Ethnobotanic Data in Women Diseases (Sindh)

Menorrhagia

Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut), Quercus infectoria Olivier. (Gall oak), Areca catechu L. (Betel nut), and sugar are ground in equal quantities to make paste. Two tablespoon of the paste is used orally during periods for the treatment of menorrhagia in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Menorrhagia and Backache

Tablets, prepared by grinding of Lallemantia royleana Benth. (Black psyllium), dried C. nucifera, sweet pudding, candy sugar, 32 herbs (purchased from pansar), leaves of Azadirachta indica J. Juss. (Margose), Withania coagulans Dunal. (Vegetable rennet), zaikha*, and khul mir*. Tablet is placed intra-vaginally for 3 days for the treatment of menorrhagia, as well as backache during menstruation in District Jamshoro (Sindh).

Menorrhagia and Infertility

  1. nucifera, Embelia robusta Roxb. (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris L. (French bean), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Areca catechu (Betel nut), Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate), Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Green cardamom), Tamarindus indica L. (Tamarind), and crystal sugar are ground to make powder. One tablespoon of the powder is taken orally twice a day for a week for the treatment of infertility, as well as menorrhagia in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Conceiving Male Child

  1. Equal quantities of nucifera, Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), nar ghanda* (purchased from pansar), Holarrhena antidysenterica L. (Tellichery bark and coneru), Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), Mentha piperta L. (Peppermint), Cuminum cyminum L. (Cumin), and Areca catechu (Betel nut) are powdered, and mixed in butter oil. This formulation is given orally for conceiving male child in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  2. Oral remedy is prepared by frying nucifera, Cassia absus L. (Pig’s senna), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), and sugar in butter oil and butter. It is used for conceiving male child in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  3. nucifera water is taken orally from 3rd month of pregnancy for a conceiving male child in Districts Dadu, Shikarpur, and Kashmore (Sindh).
  4. Intra-vaginal suppositories, prepared with ground nucifera are used for conceiving male child in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  5. nucifera is also given after delivery for conceiving male child in Districts Khairpur and Shikarpur (Sindh).

Infertility and Abortion

  1. nucifera, Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Black cardamom), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug, Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Areca catechu (Betel nut), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce. (Fennel), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Trachyspermum ammi L. (Carom), dried Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (Ginger), Salvia plebeia R. Brown. (Sage weed), Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (Lodh), behra*, kacha paka wai*, monhlalai*, mosfa*, candy sugar, nar chuhara (dry dates), and Prunus amygdalus Batsch. (Almond) ground to make powder. One tablespoon of the powder is given orally for 1-2 months for the treatment of infertility as well as for the treatment of frequent abortion in District Shahdadkot (Sindh).

Infertility

  1. 1 Kg nucifera is cooked in 3 Litre milk to make pudding, and consumed orally in the morning for 3-5 days for the treatment of infertility in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  2. A small hole is made at one end of a whole fruit Cocos nucifera (Coconut) and then Piper nigrum L. (Black pepper), Papaver somniferum L. (Opium), and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) is added in it through the hole. Triticum aestrivum L. (Wheat) is kneaded with milk and used to cover the coconut. The dough-covered coconut is then fried in butter at low flame. It is then open and the coconut mixture is ground with crystal sugar. One tablespoon of this mixture is advised to be taken orally for a month at the end of menstruation. Cotton swabs dipped in white and black glycerin is placed intra-vaginally for 3 days.

Infertility and Health after Child Birth

  1. nucifera, 10-12 Piper nigrum L. (Black pepper), 5-6 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), 12-15 Prunus amygdalus (Almond), 15-20 Pistacia vera L. (Pistachio), crystal sugar, and Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander) are ground to make a paste. Two tablespoon of the paste is taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach for the treatment of infertility in District Jacobabad (Sindh). This remedy is also used for improving general health after childbirth.

Infertility and Regulation of Menstrual Cycle

Powdered C. nucifera, Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug, Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), 125 g rock sugar, and 60 g Terminalia chebula Retz. (Black myrobalau) are taken. It is advised to take 1 spoon daily at night for 4 days. (It is recommended to use this therapy on second day of periods).

 

Leucorrhea, Infertility, and Strengthening of Uterus

Tablets, prepared by grinding dried C. nucifera, Anethum sowa Roxb. (Dill), candy sugar, Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), sinyar*, jaggery, Acorus calamus L. (Sweet flag), Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Liquorice), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), crystal sugar, Punica granatum (Pomegranate), mosfa*, Rosa indica L. (Rose), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), dakh*, and mustard oil. A tablet is placed intra-vaginally once a day for 3 days for the treatment of leucorrhea and infertility in District Jamshoro (Sindh). This remedy is also used for strengthening of uterus.

Abortion

  1. nucifera water is consumed for inducing abortion in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Labor Pain

Vaginal suppositories, prepared with ground C. nucifera, crystal sugar, Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), 4-5 Prunus amygdalus (Almond), 3-4 Phoenix dactylifera (Date palm), 2 slug of Mentha piperita (Peppermint), mosfai*, 3-4 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), 2 Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), and 2 candy sugar, are used for inducing labor pain in District Kamber (Sindh).

Lactation

  1. Dried nucifera, crystal sugar, Piper nigrum (Black pepper), and Mentha piperita (Peppermint) are taken in the form of pudding daily in the morning on an empty stomach for improving lactation in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).
  2. Paste is prepared by grinding nucifera, 5-6 Prunus amygdalus (Almond), crystal sugar, Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Juglans regia (Walnut), Pistacia vera (Pistachio), Pinus gerardiana Wall. ex D. Don. (Pinus), and Coriandrum sativum (Coriander). Two table spoon of the paste taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 10 days for improving lactation in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  3. Powdered nucifera, Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), and crystal sugar are mixed with milk. The mixture is used orally for 1-2 weeks for improving lactation in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  4. Powdered mixture of nucifera, Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and crystal sugar are prepared. One tablespoon of it given orally with water once a day for a month for improving lactation in District Tando Allahyar (Sindh).
  5. Papaver somniferum (Opium) seeds, Symplocos recemosa (Lorad), dried C. nucifera, Acacia nilotica (Kikar) gum, and Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander) seeds are fried in butter. This oral remedy is advised twice daily for a week in District Kamber Shahdadkot (Sindh).
  6. Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), jaggery, Prunus amygdalus (Almond), dried C. nucifera, and crushed Triticum aestivum (Wheat) are fried in butter oil. It is advised to take this remedy orally regularly for 8 to 10 days.

Backache

  1. Tablets prepared by mixing nucifera, Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), and Prunus amygdalus (Almond) with butter. A tablet placed intra-anally for 3 consecutive nights for relieving backache during menstruation in District Shikarpur (Sindh).
  2. nucifera, Phoenix dactylifera(Dates), and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are crushed together to make a fine powder. This powder is then mixed with butter to form marble like small tablets. These tablets are advised to place intra-anally for 3 days for the treatment of backache in the District Shikarpur (Sindh).

Dysmenorrhea

  1. nucifera, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Vitis vinifera L. (Grapes), and starch is mixed in butter oil, and given to lady orally for 3-4 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Thatta (Sindh).
  2. Ground nucifera, 3-4 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), Pinus gerardiana (Pinus), Pistacia vera (Pistachio), Juglans regia (Walnut), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Piper nigrum (Black pepper), Papaver somniferum L. (Opium), Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug, Triticum aestivum L. (Wheat), and butter are boiled in water to make a thick paste. A plate of this pudding is used orally in the morning on an empty stomach for a week for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  3. Apium graveolens (Celery), Embelia ribes (False black pepper), Myristica fragrans (Nutmeg), nucifera (Coconut), leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem), and paryo* are powdered, and mixed with some water to make small tablet. It is advised to place a tablet intra-vaginally daily in the morning for 3-4 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Dadu (Sindh).

Dysmenorrhea, Dyspareunia, and Strengthening of Uterus

Fried C. nucifera, Triticum aestivum (Wheat), Vitis vinifera L. (Grapes), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and Cucumis melo L. (Muskmelon) in clarified butter to make pudding, and three tablespoon of the pudding used orally in the morning for 3 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea, and dyspareunia. This remedy is also given for strengthening of uterus in District Tando Muhammad Khan (Sindh).

Scanty Menses

Boiled C. nucifera, Peganum harmala L. (Harmal), and jaggery in water, and a glass of this extract is taken orally at night for 3-4 days  for the treatment of scanty menses in District Ghotki (Sindh).

Leucorrhea

  1. Intra-vaginal tablets, prepared by grinding nucifera, Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), and crystal sugar, are used for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  2. Equal quantities of nucifera, candy sugar, Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Pistacia vera (Pistachio), Arachis hypogaea L. (Peanut), Triticum aestivum (Wheat), Punica granatum (Pomegranate), and Areca catechu (Betel nut) are ground to make powder. A tablespoon of this powder taken orally thrice a day in the morning on an empty stomach for 12 days (continue for 40 days if not cured) for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Miscarriage

  1. Ground nucifera, candy sugar, crystal sugar, Trachyspermum ammi (Carom), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and jaggery are mixed with butter. It is then boiled in two glass of water until one glass remains, and consumed orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 6 months for the prevention of miscarriage in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  2. Ground nucifera, 4-5 Prunus amygdalus (Almond), and crystal sugar are mixed with milk, and used orally every night during pregnancy for the prevention of miscarriage in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  3. Ground equal quantities of nucifera, candy sugar, crystal sugar, Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), fuller’s earth, and Cicer arietinum L. (Chickpea) are mixed, and used orally for the prevention of miscarriage in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  4. nucifera, candy sugar, Prunus amygdalus Batsch. (Almond), crystal sugar, Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) seeds, fuller’s earth, and Cicer arietinum L. (Chickpea) are crushed individually, and then mixed together. It is advised to take orally 1 tablespoon daily in the morning on an empty stomach for 3-4 days in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) and Dyspareunia

Ground C. nucifera, Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), 3-4 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), thank thuryon*, 3-4 Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), kaseely*, Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Tamarix aphylla L. (Salt cedar), Aloe vera (Aloe vera), and crystal sugar fried in clarified butter. Two tablespoon of this mixture is consumed orally for 40 days for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and dyspareunia in District Sanghar (Sindh). It is advised to avoid sweetened butter, milk and red chilli during treatment.

Dyspareunia

  1. Ground nucifera, 3-4 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Pinus gerardiana, Pistacia vera (Pistachio), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), and Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug are mixed with butter. 2-3 tablespoon of the mixture given orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 8-10 days for the treatment of dyspareunia in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  2. Powdered nucifera, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Piper nigrum (Black pepper), and crystal sugar are mixed. Two tablespoon of the mixture is used orally with milk in the morning for the treatment of dyspareunia in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Lactation and Shrinking the Abdominal Size after Childbirth

Fried C. nucifera, Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Pistacia vera (Pistachio), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), charmagaz, Coriandrum sativum (Coriander), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), crystal sugar, Triticum aestivum (Wheat), khonr*, and sugar in clarified butter. Three tablespoon of this herbal formulation is prescribed orally once a day for 10 days for improving lactation and for shrinking the abdominal size after childbirth in District Tando Allahyar (Sindh).

 

Lactation and Improvement of Health

2-3 Eugenia caryyophyllata Thumb. (Cloves), Trachyspermum ammi (Carom), and 3-4 Prunus

amygdalus (Almond) are ground to fine powder. 250 mL oil of C. nucifera is mixed in this powder. Whole body is given a massage with this oil once daily for 40 days in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Shrinking the Abdominal Size after Childbirth

  1. Powdered nucifera, Anethum sowa Roxb. (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), candy sugar, Juglans regia (Walnut), Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), and Mentha piperita (Peppermint) are fried in butter. A tablespoon of the mixture given orally once a day for 4-5 days in the morning for shrinking abdominal size after childbirth in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  2. nucifera powder, crystal sugar, and butter are mixed together. Two tablespoon of the mixture is taken orally thrice a day for 3 days for reducing the abdominal size after childbirth in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  3. Equal quantities of nucifera, crystal sugar, Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), dried Zingiber officinale (Ginger), and Piper nigrum (Black pepper) are powdered separately, and then mixed. This powder is used orally for reducing abdominal size after childbirth in District Shahdadkot (Sindh).

Amenorrhea

Ground C. nucifera, Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), 3-4 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), Pinus gerardiana (Pinus), Pistacia vera (Pistachio), Juglans regia (Walnut), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Piper nigrum (Black pepper), Papaver somniferum (Opium), Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug, Triticum aestivum (Wheat), and butter are boiled in water till its dried. A tablespoon of the paste is taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 3 days used for the treatment of amenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Contraception

  1. Intra-anal, as well as intra-vaginal tablets, prepared by grinding nucifera, Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), Pinus gerardiana (Pinus), Pistacia vera (Pistachio), Juglans regia (Walnut), Rosa indica (Rose) petals, and mixed with butter, and Rosa indica (Rose) water. It is placed in the morning and removed at night for contraception purposes in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  2. Ground nucifera, Terminalia chebula (Black myrobalau), crystal sugar, candy sugar, and Rosa indica (Rose) flower are mixed with butter, and then boiled in water. It is taken orally thrice a day for 3 days for contraception purposes in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Improvement of Ladies Health

  1. nucifera, Pinus gerardiana (Pinus), Pistacia vera (Pistachio), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), candy sugar, 2-3 dumpling, and butter are mixed in milk. It is taken orally for the improvement of health of a pregnant lady in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  2. Powdered nucifera, Juglans regia (Walnut), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), candy sugar, crystal sugar, Pinus gerardiana (Pinus), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Piper nigrum (Black pepper), and Pistacia vera (Pistachio) are mixed, and used for speedy recovery after delivery in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  3. Paste is prepared by grinding nucifera, Juglans regia (Walnut), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), crystal sugar, Pinus gerardiana (Pinus), and Pistacia vera (Pistachio), and mixed with butter. Two tablespoon of this oral formulation is recommended in the morning on an empty stomach for improving health of pregnant ladies in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  4. 5-6 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), 12-15 Prunus amygdalus (Almond), 15-20 Pistacia vera (Pistachio), 10-12 Piper nigrum (Black pepper), nucifera L. (Cocunut), and crystal suger are pounded together. The mixture is then fried in 100 mL butter oil to make the remedy. A daily dose of one tablespoon of this remedy is advised to be taken in the morning on an empty stomach for 40 days for the improvement of ladies health after child birth in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Strengthening of Uterus

  1. nucifera and crystal sugar are boiled in 250 mL milk, and this milk is used as a drink twice a day for a week for strengthening of uterus in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  2. Tablets prepared by grinding nucifera, Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Areca catechu (Betel nut), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), Holarrhena antidysenterica (Tellichery bark and coneru), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Anethum sowa (Dill), Cannabis sativa L. (Marijuana), Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), and crystal sugar. A tablet is placed intra-vaginally at night regularly for 2 weeks (continue for whole month if no improvement) for strengthening of uterus in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  3. Ground nucifera, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Piper nigrum (Black pepper), jaggery, and crystal sugar are mixed with butter. It is then boiled in water. A cup of this decoction is given orally thrice a day for 12 days for strengthening of uterus in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  4. Ground nucifera, Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Juglans regia (Walnut), Cicer arietinum L. (Chickpea), Piper nigrum (Black pepper), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), monhmakh*, Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), and Salvia plebeia (Sage weed) to make a paste two tablespoon of the paste taken orally in the morning for a month (continue the treatment for 5 month if no improvement) for strengthening of uterus in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  5. Ground nucifera, Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Pinus gerardiana (Pinus), Pistacia vera (Pistachio), butter, and water added to make a paste. Two tablespoon of the paste taken orally in the morning for 40 days for strengthening of uterus in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  6. nucifera, Juglans regia (Walnut), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), char magaz, kaju*, safeed mirch*, and Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) are ground to make powder. A tablespoon of the powder taken orally twice a day for 10 days for strengthening of uterus in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  7. A mixture of Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Triticum aestivum (Wheat), Vitis vinifera (Grapes), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) is cooked in butter oil. Some sugar and water is added to make pudding. Three tablespoon of this pudding is advised to take orally in the morning for 3 days for strengthening of uterus in District Tando Muhammad Khan (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

Acetoin, campesterol, caproic acid, cocamide diethanoloamide, cocamidopropyl betaine, cocos II protein, cocos IIa protein, cocos VI protein, cocos VII protein, docosane, gentisic acid, ligustrazine, menthol, phaseic acid, tannin, purin-6-one, and 2-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl-amino) are some important constituents, isolated from different parts of the plant3.
Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

  1. nuciferais useful for the treatment of amenorrhea, Candida inflammation, menorrhagia, breast cancer, gonorrhea, syphilis, diabetes, and asthma4. Roots are useful in uterine disorders5. Tender coconut water is given in typhoid, diarrhea, pneumonia, diphtheria, general toxaemia of pregnancy, and other surgical operation5. Oil is applied topically on wound of diabetic patients5. Fruits are useful in burning sensation6. Flowers are useful to decrease excessive uterine hemorrhage during menstruation7. Coconut oil is applied externally for contraception8.
  2. nuciferais reported for its antilipidemic, antinociceptive, antiviral, antifungal, antiyeast, arrhythmogenic, cytotoxic, denture stomatitis, estrogenic, diuretic, hair damage prevention, hemotoxic, hypercholesterolemic, antihypothermic, hypoglycemic, and antipyretic activities3.

REFERENCES

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coconut
  2. Malik, A. K. (1972). Flora of Pakistan, 153, 12, Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.
  3. Ross, I. A. (2005). Medicinal Plants of the World, 3, p. 120-126, Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey.
  4. Duke, J. A. (2002). Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, 2nd edition, p. 206, CRC Press, Florida, U.S.A.
  5. Pullaiah, T. (2006). Encyclopaedia of World Medicinal Plants, 2, p. 608-609, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.
  6. Khare, C. P. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 163-164, Springer Science Publisher, New Delhi, India.
  7. Vijayam, R., Deepti, V., and Dalvi, M. (2004). Patent number WO 2004064720 A2 20040805.
  8. (1981). Population Forum. Monthly Newsletter of the Commission on Population, 7(4), 23.

 

 

Coffea arabica L.

Botanical Name:                 Coffea arabica L.

Kingdom:                              Plantae

Order:                                    Gentianales

Family:                                   Rubiaceae

Genus:                                   Coffea

Local Name:                         Coffee

Sindhi Name:                       Coffee

English Name:                     Coffee

Leaves and beans of Coffea arabica L.

Parts Used:                          Seeds

 

Description

Coffea arabica L. takes about seven years to mature fully. Flowers are small, white, and fragrant1. Leaves are oblong, opposite, and have a pointed tip. Fruits are red in color and mucilaginous. Seeds are grey-green in color, and enclosed in testa2.

Occurrence

  1. arabica is native to Southwestern highlands of Ethiopia, Boma Plateau in southeastern Sudan, and Mount Marsabit in northern Kenya. Coffee is widely available in Pakistan.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Powder of Coffea arabica L. (Coffee) seeds are given orally twice a day for stimulating menstrual cycle in District Larkana (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents
Different parts of C. arabica yielded many important constituents, including cafesterol, arbutin, caffeic acid, caffeine, caffeoyl-quinic acid, chlorogenic acid A, fucosterol, sterol, cofaryloside, piceol, iso-valeric acid, sulfide, 2-furfuryl-methyl sulfide, pyrrole, para-xanthine, quinoxaline, pyrrolidine, quinic acid, 5-O-feruloyl quinic acid, dicaffeoyl quinic acid, piperidine, hydroquinone, and iso-amyl acetate3.

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

Seeds decoction of C. arabica is commonly used as cerebral3 and respiratory stimulant2,4. It decoction is also used in nervousness, headache, narcotic poisoning, spasmodic asthma, whooping cough, intermittent fever, and many other complaints5. Infusion of unripe seeds is given in migraine5.

  1. arabica exerts a variety of pharmacological activities, such as antiallergenic, antiaging, anti-inflammatory, antimitogenic, antifertility, antimutagenic, antispasmodic, antitumor, antiyeast, hypoglycemic3, antinarcotic, and antipsychotropic6.

REFERENCES

  1. Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coffea_arabica.
  2. Pulliah, T. (2006). Encyclopaedia of World Medicinal Plants, 2, 612, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.
  3. Ross, I. A. (2005). Medicinal Plants of the World, 3, p. 157-175, Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey.
  4. Bently, R., and Trimen, H. (2002). Medicinal Plants, 2, p. 801, Omsons Publications, New Delhi, India.
  5. Kirtikar, K. R., and Basu, B. D. (1998). Indian Medicinal Plants, 2, p. 1923, International Book Distributors, Rajpur, Dehradun, India.
  6. Khare, C. P. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 164, Springer Science Publishers, New York, USA.

 

 

 

Commiphora mukul (Stocks) Hook.

Botanical Name:                 Commiphora mukul (Stocks) Hook.

Kingdom:                              Plantae

Order:                                    Sapindales

Family:                                   Burseraceae

Genus:                                   Commiphora

Local Name:                         Guggul

Sindhi Name:                       Guggur, Gugar

English Name:                     Indian bdellium

Part Used:                            Leaves and roots

 Gum of Commiphora mukul (Stocks) Hook.

 

 

 

 

Description

Commiphora mukul (Stocks) Hook. is a shrub or small tree that grow up to 4 metres. Bark is papery thin. Branches are thorny. Leaves are simple or trifoliate while the leaflets are ovate and irregularly toothed. Flowers are red to pink in color with four small petals1.

Occurrence

  1. mukulis found from Northern Africa to Central Asia, but is most common in northern India. In Pakistan, it is found in Sindh and Baluchistan (calcarious soil and rocky regions), and cultivated commercially.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Expulsion of Umbilical Cord and Leucorrhea

Tablets prepared by frying Boswellia serrata Roxb. (Indian frankincense), Embelia ribes Burm. f. (False black pepper), Morus acidosa Griff. (Mulberry), Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Acorus calamus L. (Sweet flag), Anethum sowa Roxb. (Dill), Terminalia bellirica Roxb. (Beleric myrobalan), Quercus infectoria Olivier. (Gall oak), Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint), Salvia plebeia R. Brown. (Sage weed), Papaver somniferum L. (Opium), Prunus amygdalus Batsch. (Almond), Commiphora mukul (Stocks) Hook. (Indian bdellium), Terminalia chebula Retz. (Black myrobalan), Withania coagulans Dunal. (Vegetable rennet), dried Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut), Azadirachta indica J. Juss (Margose) seeds, Eugenia caryyophyllata Thumb. (Cloves), mohn jot*, mohnsafa*, awabaer*, chowrn*, candy sugar, red earth, rock salt, Saussurea lappa DC. (Costus), kahri*, khurbat*, samund gujri*, samund gujri*, kachri kapor*, and honey together. A tablet is placed intra-vaginally for 8-10 days after periods for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Thatta (Sindh). In the same District, this remedy is also used for 40 days after delivery for expulsion of umbilical cord.

Infertility, Menstrual Problem, and Leucorrhea

Intra-vaginal tablets, prepared by grinding Boswellia serrata (Indian frankincense), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Acorus calamus (Sweet flag), Terminalia chebula (Black myrobalan), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), dried Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Allium sativum L. (Garlic), C. mukul, halbhiyao*, khurbat*, and regular salt into a paste, and used for 8-10 days for the treatment of infertility, leucorrhea, and menstrual problem, such as dysmenorrhea in District Thatta (Sindh).

 

 

Chemical Constituents
Guggulu, myrcene, dimyrcene, polymyrcene, caryophyllene, arabinose, galactose, L-fucose, 6-D-(4-d-methyi-13-D-glucopyranosyluronic acid)-O-galacto pyranose, guggulsterols I-V, guggulsterones E and Z, cembrene-A, mukulol, flavonoids, quercetin, and quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinoside are important constituents reported from different parts of the plant2.

 

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

Resin smoke of C. mukul act as mosquito repellent. Fumes of burning gum are inhaled for the treatment of hay fever, chronic bronchitis, nasal catarrh, laryngitis, and phthisis3,4.

  1. mukulis reported for hypocholesteroleamic, cardioprotective, antifertility, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, platelet inhibition, antiarthritic, and thyroid stimulating effects5.

REFERENCES

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commiphora_wightii.
  2. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/17052/14/14_chapter%203.pdf
  3. Joshi, S. G. (2000). Medicinal Plants, 109, Oxford and IBH Publishers, New Delhi, India.
  4. Dhiman, A. K. (2006). Ayurvedic Drug Plants, p. 142-143, Daya Publisher, New Delhi, India.
  5. Rout, O. P., Acharya, R., and Mishra, S. K. (2012). Oleogum resin Guggulu: A review of the medicinal evidence for its therapeutic properties. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy, 3(1), 15–21.

 

 

 

Corchorus capsularis L.

Botanical Name:                 Corchorus capsularis L.

Kingdom:                              Plantae

Order:                                    Malvales

Family:                                  Malvaceae

Genus:                                   Corchorus

Local Name:                         Rasi

Sindhi Name:                       Nori

English Name:                     White jute

Part Used:                            Fibers and leaves

Leaves of Corchorus capsularis L.

Description

Corchorus capsularis L. is annual and tall herb, unbranched or with a few side branches. Leaves are alternate, lanceolate, and have a fine margin. Flowers are small, about 2-3 cm in diameter, and yellow in color. Fruits is a many-seeded capsule1.

Occurrence

  1. capsularis is cultivated in Asia and in Africa, and it occurs in the wild in both continents. In Pakistan, it is cultivated throughout Sindh.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Burnt Corchorus capsularis L. (White jute) is mixed with candy sugar to make a paste, used orally for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Khairpur (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents
Urosolic acid, corosolic acid, corosin, capsin, raffinose, arabinose, fructose, glucose, capsularin, corchoritin, corchsularin, corchorosides A and B, capsulasone, corchorol, D-boivinose, and capsularol are some of the major constituents of plant2.

 

 

 

 

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

Leaves of C. capsularis are act as stomachic, carminative, diuretic3, and tonic4. It is used for the treatment of fever, dysentery5, appetizer, demulcent, laxative, stimulant and stomachic6.

Dried leaves are antidysenteric3. Jute root extract serves as an antibacterial preservative and an antibacterial finishing agent7. Anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antiseptic properties of the plant are also reported8.

REFERENCES

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corchorus.
  2. http://jbpr.in/index.php/jbpr/article/viewFile/51/47.
  3. Khare, C. P. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 172, Springer Science Publishers, New York, USA.
  4. Kasyapa, S. K., and Chand, S. R. (1992). The Useful Plants of India, Ambasta S.S.P., p 140, National Institute of Science Communication, New Delhi, India.
  5. Kiritikar, K, R., and Basu, B, D. (2005). Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 219, Basu S. N, Indian Press, Allahbad, India.
  6. http://www.naturalmedicinalherbs.net/herbs/c/corchorus-capsularis=jute.php.
  7. Lv, B., and Zhang, J. (2011). Faming Zhuanli Shenqing, Patent no CN 102090699 A 20110615.
  8. Islam, M. (2013). Biochemistry, Medicinal and Food values of Jute (Corchorus capsularis and C . olitorius L.) Leaf: A Review. International Journal of Enhanced Research in Science Technology and Engineering, 2(11), 35–44.

 

 

 

Coriandrum sativum L.

Botanical Name:                 Coriandrum sativum L.

Kingdom:                              Plantae

Order:                                    Apiales

Family:                                   Apiaceae

Genus:                                   Coriandrum

Local Name:                         Dhania

Sindhi Name:                       Dhana

English Name:                     Coriander

Part Used:                            Seeds and leaves

Leaves of Coriandrum sativum L.

 

 

Description

Coriandrum sativum L. are tall and branched. Basal leaves are ternately lobed and has oval to ovate segments. Cauline leaves are pinnately dissected and their segments are linear. Petals are purplish-white in color; outer part is large, and bilobed. Fruits are sub-globose, while inner seeds are concave in shape1.

Occurrence

  1. sativum is native to Southern Europe and the Middle East. It is also cultivated in all over Pakistan.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Leucorrhea

Crushed seeds of Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander) are packed tightly in muslin cloth, and used intra-vaginally for 3 days for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Thatta (Sindh).

Scanty Menses

Oral extract, prepared with C. sativum leaves, Lallemantia royleana Benth. (Black psyllium) leaves, jaggery and candy sugar. Half glass of the extract is taken twice a day for first 3 days of the periods for the treatment of scanty menses in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

 

Strengthening of Uterus

Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut), Juglans regia L. (Walnut), Prunus amygdalus Batsch. (Almond), Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Green cardamom), char magaz, Anacardium occidentale L (Cashew), Piper nigrum L. (White pepper), and C. sativum are powdered together to obtain a fine powdered mixture. It is advised to drink a tablespoon of this remedy twice a day with a glass of water for 10 days for strengthening of uterus in District Ghotki (Sindh).

Infertility

  1. Paste is prepared by grinding sativum leaves, Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut), 5-6 Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Green cardamom), 12-15 Prunus amygdalus (Almond), crystal sugar, 10-12 Piper nigrum (Black pepper), and 15-20 Pista vera L. (Pistachio). Two tablespoon taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach for a month for the treatment of infertility in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  2. Equal amount of sativum, ghora wal*, morhyo*, Anethum sowa Roxb. (Dill), Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), candy sugar, and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are soaked in water at night. The extract is used orally in the morning from the last day of periods for 3 days for the treatment of infertility in District Shadadkot (Sindh).
  3. sativum, Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Pinus gerardiana Wall. ex D. Don. (Pinus), Pista vera (Pistachio), and Juglans regia L. (Walnut) are powdered, and mixed with Triticum aestivum L. (Wheat) flour 2 table spoon , butter oil, and soaked Withania coagulans Dunal. (Vegetable rennet). It is then boiled in 500ml water, and given one glass orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 3 days to the ladies for the treatment of infertility in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  4. Vaginal tablets are prepared by grinding sativum, Embelia robusta Roxb. (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris L. (French bean), Quercus infectoria Olivier. (Gall oak), Anethum sowa (Dill), Areca catechu L. (Betel nut), and Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce. (Fennel), and placed intra-vaginally for 5-6 days for the treatment of infertility in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Dysmenorrhea

  1. sativum, Asparagus officinalis L. (Garden asparagus), and candy sugar are boiled in water. It is given orally once a day for 3 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  2. Vaginal suppositories, prepared by mashing sativum, Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), and candy sugar. It is placed intra-vaginally in the morning and removed at night for 3 days regularly for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Labor Pain

  1. sativum, candy sugar, Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet), Embelia robusta (Embelia), and Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Black cardamom) are boiled in milk, and this milk is used orally for inducing labor pain in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  2. Withania coagulans (Vegetable renent), sativum, Terminalia chebula Retz. (Black myrobalau), Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), and jaggery are boiled in 2 glasses of milk till 1 glass remained. This water is advised to take orally for inducing labor pain.

Lactation

  1. sativum seeds, Papaver somniferum L. (Opium), dried Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Acacia nilotica L. Willd. (Kikar), and Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (Lodh) are fried in butter oil, and given orally twice a day for a week for improving lactation in District Umerkot (Sindh).
  2. Powdered sativum seeds, Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Cocos nucifera (Coconut), crystal sugar, Cuminum cyminum L. (Cumin) seeds, Juglans regia (Walnut), Pista vera (Pistachio), and Pinus gerardiana (Pinus) are mixed. Two tablespoon of the mixture taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 10 days for improving lactation in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  3. Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Acacia nilotica (Kikar) gum, sativum, Prunus amygdalus (Almond), and sugar are fried in butter oil, and make a Rub. It is advised to be taken orally for few days (stop the treatment when milk production increases) in the District Umerkot (Sindh).

Menorrhagia and Polymenorrhea

Dried leaves of C. sativum, and fresh leaves of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium) are soaked in water at night, and given orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 3 days for the treatment of menorrhagia and polymenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).

 

Post-Partum Hemorrhage

A tablespoon of the powdered mixture of C. sativum, and crystal sugar are taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 10 days for the treatment of post-partum hemorrhage in District Kashmore (Sindh).

 

Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases

Powdered crystal sugar, aria, and Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander) are mixed together, and converted into tablet form. It is advised to place 1 tablet intra-vaginally at night for 3 days for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory diseases in District Tando Mohammad Khan (Sindh).

 

Shrinking Abdominal Size after Childbirth

Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Pistacia vera (Pistachio), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), char magaz, C. sativum, Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), crystal sugar, and Triticum aestivum (Wheat) are fried in clarified butter. Khonr* and sugar are added in it. 3 Tablespoons of the remedy is advised to take orally once a day for 10 days in District Tando Allahyar (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

Major active constituents of C. sativum are its essential oils and fatty oil. Essential oil contain S-(+)-linalool, α-pinene, limonene , γ-terpinene, p-cymene, borneol, citronellol, camphor, geraniol, geraniol acetate, pyrazine, pyridine, thiazole, furan, coriandrin, dihydrocoriandrin, coriandrons A-E, flavonoids, pthlides, neochidilide, digustilide phenolic acids, and sterols. Fatty acids, such as petroselinic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid, vaccenic acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, and palmitic acid were also isolated2.
Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

Decoction, prepared with C. sativum wood is prescribed as medicine in fever, diarrhea, dysentery, and urinary diseases. Coriander oil is useful for leprosy, flatulence, and rheumatism3.

Decoction of leaves is useful in sore throat, catarrh, and eye washing in conjunctivitis. Seed extract is one of the main ingredients in lotions, and shampoo. Roasted seeds are used for the treatment of dyspepsia4. Coriander juice is prescribed to vitamins A-C deficit patients. Fresh leaves are effective as a medicine for curing stomatitits, bad breath, prevent dental caries, and stimulate appetite5.

Aqueous extract of coriander seed shows diuretic, and saluretic activities6. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of seeds possesses significant anticonvulsant activity7. Aqeuous and hydroalcoholic extract of essential oil has sedative, hypnotic8, and anthelmintic activities9. The plant is also reported for hypolipidemic10 and antioxidant activities11.

REFERENCES

  1. Nisar, E. (1972). Flora of Pakistan, 20, p. 26, Stewart Herbarium, Gordon College, Rawalpindi.
  2. Diederichsen, A. (1996). Promoting the Conservation and Use of Underutilized and Neglected Crops Coriander (Coriandrum sativum ), 1st edition, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Italy.
  3. Dhiman, A. K. (2006). Ayurvedic Drug Plants, p. 114, Daya Publisher, New Delhi, India.
  4. Joshi, S. G. (2000). Medicinal Plants, 34, Oxford and IBH Publishers, New Delhi, India.
  5. Pullaiah, T. (2006). Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants, 2, 1641, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.
  6. Abderahim, A. (2008). Acute Diuretic Effect of Continuous Intravenous Infusion of an Aqueous Extract of Coriandrum sativum in Anesthetized Rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 115, 89–95.
  7. Hossein, H., and Madanifard, M. (2005). Anticonvulsant Effect of Coriander sativum Seed Extracts in Mice. Iranian journal of pharmacy, 3, 1-4.
  8. Emamghoreishi, M., and Heidari-Hamedani, G. (2006). Sedative-Hypnotic Activity of Extracts and Essential Oil of Coriander Seeds. Iran Journal of Medical Science, 31(1), 22-27.
  9. Nimish, L. P. (2011). Phytopharmacological Properties of Coriander sativum as a Potential Medicinal Tree: An Overview. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 1(04), 20-25.
  10. Dhanapakiam, P., Mini Joseph, J., Ramaswamy, V. K., Moorthi, M., and Kumar, A. (2008). The Cholesterol Lowering Property of Coriander Seeds (Coriandrum sativum): Mechanism of Action. Journal of Environmental Biology, 29(1), 53-56.
  11. Misharina, T. A., and Samusenko, A. L. (2008). Antioxidant Properties of Essential Oils from Lemon, Grapefruit, Coriander, Clove, and their Mixtures. Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, 45(4), 438–442.

 

 

 

Crocus sativus L.

Botanical Name:                 Crocus sativus L.

Kingdom:                              Plantae

Order:                                    Asparagales

Family:                                   Iridaceae

Genus:                                   Crocus

Local Name:                         Zafran

Sindhi Name:                       Zafran

English Name:                     Saffron

Flowers, stigma, and leaves of Crocus sativus L.

Parts Used:                          Stigma

 

Description

Crocus sativus L. is a perennial herb, stemless, and sheathed corm. Leaves are long, linear, and channeled. Flowers are deeo violet in color, stakles, and funnel shaped. Fruits are oblong, membranous, and loculicidal while seeds are sub-globose1.

Occurrence

  1. sativus is native to Asia Minor, China, Greece, Italy, Kashmir, Pakistan (Quetta), and Persia. It is naturalized in England, France, Spain, and to a limited extent in Pennsylvania (USA).

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Conceiving Male Child

Intra-vaginal tablets, prepared by frying Crocus sativus L. (Saffron) and candy sugar in butter oil, are prescribed for conceiving male child in Districts Umerkot and Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).

Labor Pain

In winter season, C. sativus is boiled in water and given to the expecting lady for inducing labor pain.

Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases

Onosma hispidum Wall. (Rattan jot), C. sativus, Cuminum cyminum L. (Cumin), Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Green cardamom), Areca cartechu L. (Betel nut), and small amount of alum (phitkari) are powdered. Roots of 32 different trees are boiled in water. The powder is then mixed with this extract and converted into tablet form. It is advised to place tablet intra-vaginally once daily for 15 days.

Chemical Constituents

  1. sativus stigmas contain crocetin, gentiobioside, γ‐crocetin, lycopene, xanthone‐carotenoid glycosidic conjugate, 3,5,5‐trimethyl‐4‐hydroxy‐1‐cyclohexanon‐2‐ene, 3,5,5‐trimethyl‐1,4‐cyclohexadione, 3,5,5‐trimethyl‐2‐hydroxy‐1,4‐cyclohexadion‐2‐ene, crocins, anthocyanins, and mangicrocin were isolated from saffron2.

 

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

Stigma of C. sativus is an important part of the plant used for various medicinal purpose. It is also used for the treatment of insomnia, measles, dysentery, jaundice, and cholera. Paste form of stigma is applied topically for the treatment of skin diseases such as acne and skin eruptions. It is considered as a tonic for heart and nervous systems, and for smoothing menstruation. Powdered stigmas are used in the treatment of cataracts, night blindness, poor vision, and also as a blood purifier2.

  1. sativus has been reported for its hypolipidemic3, contractions of uterus4, antidepressant5, antitussive6,7, antigenotoxic8, and anticonvulsant effects9. C. sativus showed inhibition of A‐βfibrillogenesis in Alzheimer’s disease10, inhibited photoreceptor degeneration, retinal dysfunction11, and attenuated memory deficits12.

REFERENCES

  1. http://www.herbpharmacopia.com/c/crocus-sat.php
  2. Bhargava, K. V. (2011). Medicinal Uses and Pharmacological Properties of Crocus sativus (Saffron). International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(supp 3), 22­26.
  3. Papandreou, M. A., Kanakis, C. D., Polissiou, M. G., Efthimiopoulos, S., Cordopatis, P., Margarity, M., and Lamari, F. N. (2006). Inhibitory Activity on Amyloid‐Beta Aggregation and Antioxidant Properties of Crocus sativus Stigmas Extract and its Crocin Constituents. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 54(23), 8762‐
  4. Akhondzadeh, S., Fallah‐Pour, H., Afkham, K., Jamshidi, A. H., and Khalighi‐Cigaroudi, F. (2004). Comparison of Crocus sativusand Imipramine in the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Depression: A Pilot Double‐Blind Randomized Trial. BMC Complement and Alternate Medicine4(12).
  5. Fatehi, M., Rashidabady, T., and Fatehi‐Hassanabad, Z. (2003). Effects of Crocus sativus Petals Extract on Rat Blood Pressure and on Responses Induced by Electrical Field Stimulation in the Rat Isolated Vas Deferens and Guinea‐Pig Ileum. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 84(2‐3), 199‐
  6. “Saffron”  http://www.saffron.de/en/safron‐chemical‐structure/saffron.htm
  7. Abe, K., and Saito, H. (2000). Effects of Saffron Extract and its Constituent Crocin on Learning Behavior and Long-Term Potentiation. Phytotherapy Research, 14, 149-52.
  8. Bown, D. (1995). Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London, ISBN 0-7513-020-31.
  9. Vida, J. A., Foye, W. O., Lemke, T. L., and Williams, D. A. (1995). Principles of Medicinal Chemistry, Williams and Wilkins, London.
  10. Zarghami, N. S., and Heinz, D. E. (1971). “Monoterpene Aldehydes and Isophorone Related Compounds of Saffron”. Phytochemistry, 10(11), 2755-276.
  11. Phillips, R., and Foy, N. (1990). Herbs Pan Books Ltd. London, ISBN 0-330-30725-8.
  12. Goldblatt, P. (1990). Phylogeny and Classification of Iridaceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 77, 607–627.

 

 

 

Cucumis sativus L.

Botanical Name:                 Cucumis sativus L.

Kingdom:                              Plantae

Order:                                    Cucurbitales

Family:                                  Cucurbitaceae

Genus:                                   Cucumis

Local Name:                         Khera

Sindhi Name:                       Khero

English Name:                     Cucumber

Part Used:                            Seeds and fruits

 

Fruit and leaves of Cucumis sativus L.

Description

Cucumis sativus L. is annual, trailing or climbing herb. Stem is angular with scabridulous hairs. Leaves are ovate and hispidulous or scabridulous on both surfaces with elongated petioles. Female flowers are solitary or rarely fascicled. Fruits are oblong, smooth, and glabrous1.

Occurrence

  1. sativus is cultivated throughout the tropical and subtropical countries of the World. Turkey, Russia, Iran, U.S, Ukraine, Spain, Egypt, and China are the top ten cultivators of cucumber. It is cultivated throughout Pakistan as well.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Intra-vaginal suppositories are prepared from seeds of Cucumis sativus L. (Cucumber) and used at night for 3 days regularly for the treatment of infertility in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

Bioactive compounds from C. sativus include cucurbitacins, cucumegastigmanes I and II, and cucumerin. Cucurbitacins A-E and I were isolated from cotyledons from seeds. Quercetin 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside, and kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside were found in the flowers. Some major phytochemicals found in the leaves includes cucumerins A and B, vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, isoorientin, and 4-hydroxycinnamic acid2.
Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

 

Fresh fruit juice of C. sativus nourishes the skin, has soothing effect against skin irritations, and also reduces swelling. Cucumber fruit is used for reducing the sunburn’s pain. Seeds are used for the prevention of constipation2. Pulp tissues are used for treatments of warts and xerosis3. Fresh cucumber extract is used in cosmetics as a skin caring product like face packs, facials, and many other products4. Boiled leaves of cucumber with cumin seeds are recommended for throat infection. Powdered leaves with sugar are prescribed for the treatment of remitted and inflammatory fevers5.

Lyophilized juice of cucumber fruit has antioxidant, anti-wrinkle, and antiaging actions. Volatile oil of cucumber has antimicrobial activity. Fruit extracts are reported for antidiabetic, antiparasitic, and hypolipidemic activities. Methanolic extract of seeds has ulcer protective effect6.

REFERENCES

  1. Flora of Pakistan: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=200022616.
  2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23098877.
  3. Murad, H., Shamban, A. T., and Premo, P. S. (1995). The Use of Glycolic Acid as a Peeling Agent. Dermatologic Clinics, 13, 285-307.
  4. Kapoor, L. D. (1990). Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants, 84, CRC Press LLC, Florida.
  5. Sumathi, T., Ponnuswami, V., and Senthamizh, B. S. (2008). Anatomical Changes of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Leaves and Roots as Influenced by Shade and Fertigation. Research Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences, 4, 630-8.
  6. Pullaiah, T. (2006). Encyclopaedia of World Medicinal Plants, 2, p. 676-678, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.

 

 

 

Cuminum cyminum L.

Botanical Name:                 Cuminum cyminum L.

Kindom:                                Plantae

OIrder:                                  Apiales

Family:                                  Apiaceae

Genus:                                   Cuminum

Local Name:                         Zeera

Sindhi Name:                       Jeero, Zeero

English Name:                     Cumin seeds

Flowers of Cuminum cyminum L.

Part Used:                            Seeds and leaves

 

Description  

Cuminum cyminum L. is herbaceous and annual plant that grows up to 30–50 cm tall. Stem is slender, branched, and about 20–30 cm tall. Leaves are pinnate or bipinnate shaped with thread-like leaflets. Flowers are small and white or pink whereas fruits are oblong containing single seed1,2.

Occurrence

  1. cyminum is distributed in North Africa, Mediterranean region, Middle East, Central Asia, Western Pakistan, and North America. It is cultivated throughout Pakistan.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Cuminum cyminum L. (Cumin) is widely used by the women for various gynecological disorders, such as leucorrhea, sexually transmitted disease, dyspareunia, infertility, pelvic inflammatory disease, and menstrual diseases, such as  menorrhagia, polymenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and amenorrhea.

Abortion

  1. cyminum, Piper nigrum L. (Black pepper), Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Black cardamom), and Quercus infectoria Olivier. (Gall oak) are ground together, and then small amount of water is added to make a remedy. 1 table spoons of this remedy are prescribed once a day up to 3 day in the morning.

Backache

Tamarindus indicum L. (Tamarind), Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Green cardamom), C. cyminum, and Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce. (Fennel) are ground into fine powder. One spoon of butter is heated in a pan and 1 cup water is added, then 1 spoon of mixture is added in it. It is advised to use this remedy orally after 1 hour of lunch for 3 days.

Menorrhagia and Dysmenorrhea

  1. cyminum and some fresh leaves of Lallemantia royleana Benth. (Black psyllium), are soaked in water. This water is used orally for the treatment of menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea in District Thatta (Sindh).

 

 

 

Dysmenorrhea

  1. Pudding is prepared by frying cyminum, Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint) slug, and Piper nigrum L. (Black pepper) in butter, and consumed orally once a day for 3 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  2. Equal quantities of Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), C. cyminum, Tamarindus indica L. (Tamarind), Embelia robusta Roxb. (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris L. (French bean), and candy sugar are boiled in a glass of water, and this water is used orally in the morning for 3 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  3. Ground cyminum, Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), chori bhata*, Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), Salvia plebeia R. Brown. (Sage weed), Areca catechu L. (Betel nut), and Quercus infectoria (Gall oak) are fried in butter. It is consumed orally for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  4. One table spoon of powdered cyminum is taken with water orally in the morning for 40 days for the treatment of dysmeorrhea in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  5. 20 g of cyminum are fried in 60 g butter and soaked candy sugar is added. This is known as tringh. Tringh is used orally 3 nights every month for the treatment of polymenorrhea and dysmenorrhea in District Shahdadkot (Sindh).
  6. Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French beans), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Tamarindus indicum (Tamarind), Areca catechu (Betel nut), and cyminum are first ground, and fried in a cup of butter oil, and then 250 ml of water is added in it. It is advised to use this water in the morning on an empty stomach for 6 days.
  7. Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and cyminum (Cumin) are ground to a fine powder. It is converted into vaginal suppositories. It is advised to place suppository intra-vaginally for 3 nights.
  8. Two table spoons of cyminum and some fresh leaves of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium) are boiled in water, and this water is used orally in the morning for 3 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Kamber (Sindh).

Irregular Menses

  1. Ground 2 table spoons cyminum, and 2-3 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom). One tablespoon of the mixture taken orally thrice a day for 3-4 days for the treatment of irregular menses in District Dadu (Sindh).
  2. Anethum sowa (Dill), 20 g of cyminum, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and candy sugar are fried in butter, and this paste is used orally for the treatment of irregular menses in District Kashmore (Sindh).

 

Scanty Menses

 

Ground C. cyminum, Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), and candy sugar, and fried in butter. Two tablespoon of the paste is taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 3 days for the treatment of irregular menses in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Polymenorrhea

  1. Two table spoons of cyminum, some fresh leaves of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), and 3-4 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are ground to make a tablets that is taken orally thrice a day for a week for the treatment of polymenorrhea in District Dadu (Sindh).
  2. cyminum is first soaked overnight in water. Prunus amygdalus Batsch. (Almonds) and crystal sugar are added to the water, and then blended into a mixture. It is advised to drink a glass daily for a month.

Infertility

  1. Two tablespoons of cyminum, some fresh leaves of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), and table sugar are fried in a cup of butter. This prepared remedy is used orally for first 3 days of periods for the treatment of infertility in District Dadu (Sindh).
  2. Powdered cyminum and crystal sugar are mixed together, and used orally thrice a day for 6 days for the treatment of infertility in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  3. Ground in equal amounts of Anethum sowa (Dill), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Areca catechu (Betel nut), cyminum, fresh leaves of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), and Cannabis sativa L. (Marijuana) to make vaginal suppositories that are placed intra-vaginally for 3 nights regularly for the treatment of infertility in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  4. Tablets prepared by grinding cyminum, Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Nutmeg) in equal quantities. A tablet is placed intra-vaginally for in the morning and removed at night for 2 months for the treatment of infertility in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  5. Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), cyminum, Withania coagulans Dunal. (Vegetable rennet), flowers of Rosa indica L. (Rose), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and candy sugar are boiled in a glass of water. This water is used orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 3 days for the treatment of infertility in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  6. Powdered cyminum, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and crystal sugar are mixed. This mixture is used orally once a day for 8-15 days after periods for the treatment of infertility and lactation in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  7. Preserved umbilical cord of a male baby is ground with cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel). It is then mixed with 32 herbs and converted into tablet form. The tablet is placed intra-vaginally for 3 day after menstruation ends at the follicularphore. After that intercourse is advised.

Infertility and Recurrent Abortion

Ground equal quantities of C. cyminum, Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug, Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Areca catechu (Betel nut), kacha paka wai*, Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Trachyspermum ammi (Carom), dried Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (Ginger), monhlalai*, mosfa*, Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), Symplocos racemosa (Lodh), behra*, candy sugar, dry dates, Cocos nucifera (Coconut), and Prunus amygdalus (Almond) separately, and then mixed to make a remedy. A tablespoon of the remedy taken orally for 1-2 months is recommended for the treatment of infertility as well as recurrent abortion in District Shahdadkot (Sindh).

Concieving Male Child

  1. cyminum powder are taken orally for concieving male child in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  2. Fruits of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Bitter apple) are covered in cow dung for burning. Soft mass of burnt fruit is boiled in cow’s milk and then sieved. cyminum, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and rock sugar is then added in milk, and cooked till it becomes thick. Intra-anal suppositories are prepared from this mixture and consumed by ladies for conceiving male child in District Matiari (Sindh).

 

Concieving Male Child and Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases

Ground C. cyminum, crystal sugar, Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet), and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are used to make a paste, and tablets. The paste is taken orally with water while tablets are placed intra-anally in the night for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory diseases. This remedy is also prescribed for conceiving male child in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases

Onosma hispidum Wall. (Rattan jot), Crocus sativus L. (Saffron), C. cyminum, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Areca cartechu (Betel nut) and small amount of alum (phitkari) are powdered. Roots of 32 different trees are boiled in water. The powder is then mixed with this extract and converted into tablet form. It is advised to place tablet intra-vaginally once daily for 15 days.

Improvement of Health after Childbirth

  1. Piper nigrum (Black pepper), crushed Triticum aestivum (Wheat), and cyminum are fried in butter, and used orally for 5 days fter delivery for improving health conditions after childbirth in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
  2. Rub, prepared with butter oil, Triticum aestivum (Wheat) flour, cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Piper nigrum (Black pepper), and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), are given to ladies for health improvement after childbirth in District Mirpurkhas (Sindh). It is strictly prohibited during pregnancy as it can cause abortion.

Lactation

  1. cyminum, dried Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Triticum aestivum (Wheat) flour, Prunus amygdalus (Almond), and Pistacia vera (Pistachio) are fried in butter, and used orally regularly for improving lactation in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
  2. Two tablespoons of cyminum are fried in butter oil and taken orally in the morning for 3 days for improving lactation in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  3. Ground 5-6 Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Cocos nucifera (Coconut), crystal sugar, cyminum, Juglans regia (Walnut), Pistacia vera (Pistachio), Pinus gerardiana (Pinus), and Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) to make a paste. Two tablespoon of the paste is taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 10 days for improving lactation in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  4. Ground Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Cocos nucifera (Coconut), crystal sugar, cyminum, and crystal sugar, and mixed with milk. This remedy is used orally for 1-2 weeks for improving lactation in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  5. Equal quantities of cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), two tablespoon of Triticum aestivum (Wheat), and candy sugar are fried in 50 mL butter oil, and add some water to make a Tringh. Tringh is used orally twice a day for 6 days for improving lactation and pelvic inflammatory disease in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  6. cyminum and sugar are mixed together, and taken with water for improving lactation in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  7. Equal quantities of cyminum, Triticum aestivum (Wheat), clarified butter, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), and sugar are fried in one glass of water, and advised for drinking for improving lactation in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  8. One tablespoon of cyminum is taken with water orally for 6 days for improving lactation and shrinkage of abdominal size in Districts Shahdadkot, Khairpur, and Sanghar (Sindh).
  9. Powdered mixture of cyminum and Piper nigrum (Black pepper) is used orally twice a day for 15 days for improving lactation in Districts Shaheed Benazirabad and Ghotki (Sindh).
  10. cyminum, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), crystal sugar, Piper nigrum (Black pepper), candy sugar, dried Cocos nucifera (Coconut), and Triticum aestivum (Wheat) are mixed, and used orally for improving lactation in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).
  11. cyminum, butter oil, Triticum aestivum (Wheat), and Prunus amygdalus (Almond) are kneaded, and given to ladies to consume regularly for improving lactation in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).
  12. Triticum aestivum (Wheat) flour is kneaded with cyminum to make bread, and taken orally for 3 days for improving lactation in Districts Shaheed Benazirabad, Ghotki, and Kamber (Sindh).
  13. Fried cyminum, Triticum aestivum (Wheat) flour, and crystal sugar are mixed together, and kneaded to make bread. It is prescribed orally for improving lactation in Districts Shaheed Benazirabad and Ghotki (Sindh).
  14. Ground cyminum, Piper nigrum (Black pepper), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), and Triticum aestivum (Wheat) to make a paste. Two tablespoon of the paste is taken orally twice a day for 5 days for improving lactation in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  15. Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), cyminum, Trachyspermum ammi (Carom) and Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug are first ground, and then fried in butter to make a ‘Rub’. Oral administration of the remedy is advised for 3 days.
  16. Red rice, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and cyminum are fried in butter till its color changes from light to medium brown to make a remedy, used oraly for improving lactation (This formulation is not to be taken with water).
  17. cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), jaggary, Prunus amygdalus Batsch. (Almond), dried Cocos nucifera (Coconut), and crushed Triticum aestivum (Wheat) are fried in butter oil. It is advised to take this remedy orally regularly for 8 to 10 days.

Lactation and Abortion

  1. cyminum, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Piper nigrum (Black pepper), and candy sugar are fried in butter oil, and used this paste orally once a day in the morning for 10-15 days for improving lactation as well as for 3-4 days for inducing abortion in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Expulsion of Umbilical Cord

  1. cyminum, Piper nigrum (Black pepper), candy sugar, and Triticum aestivum (Wheat) are fried to make porridge. It is used orally for expulsion of umbilical cord in Districts Shaheed Benazirabad, Ghotki, and Kamber (Sindh).
  2. Equal amount of Tamarindus indicum (Tamarind), Holarrhena antidysenterica (Tellicherry Bark), cyminum, Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French beans) are boiled in 2 glass of water till 1 glass remains. This water is consumed orally.
  3. cyminum and Curcuma longaL. (Turmeric) are boiled in water. It is advised to use this water orally for 6 days.

Expulsion of Umbilical Cord, Dysmenorrhea, and Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases

Anethum sowa (Dill), C. cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) and Piper nigrum (Black pepper) are taken. All herbs are fried in two spoon butter oil in pan, and then one glass of water is added in it. It is advised to take orally for 3 days.

Lactation, Menorrhagia, Infertility, Amenorrhea, Leucorrhea, and Labor Pain

  1. cyminum is taken orally with water or milk for improving lactation in Districts Shikarpur, Kashmore, Jamshoro, Kamber, Ghotki, Dadu, Mirpurkhas, Khairpur, Matiari, and Naushahro Feroze (Sindh). This remedy is also used for 15-20 days for the treatment of menorrhagia and for 3 days for infertility in District Khairpur (Sindh). It is also consumed orally for 3 days for inducing labor pain and for 2 weeks to treat leucorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh). It is also used orally for 5-6 days for the treatment of amenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Lactation and Improvement of Health after Childbirth

Sulmani tea, prepared with candy sugar and C. cyminum are advised to take with bread for improvement of health after childbirth as well as for improving lactation in District Mirpurkhas (Sindh).

Menorrhagia

  1. Equal amount of Areca catechu (Betel nut), Juniperus communis (Juniper), C. cyminum, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and Anethum sowa (Dill) are soaked in water. This water is used orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 3 days for the treatment of menorrhagia in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
  2. Ground cyminum, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French beans), achro*, and Quercus infectoria (Gall oak) with butter to make vaginal suppositories, that is used for the treatment of menorrhagia in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  3. Oral extract is prepared with cyminum, Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), and jaggery, and prescribed orally for the treatment of menorrhagia in District Larkana (Sindh).
  4. Powdered cyminum and Mentha pipperta (peppermint) is taken orally for 15 days as a medicine for menorrhagia in District Khairpur (Sindh).
  5. cyminum (Cumin) and Metroxylon sagu Rottb. (Sogo) or Anethum sowa (Dill) are soaked in half glass of water overnight and strained in the morning. The water extract is advised to be taken orally for 7 days in morning on an empty stomach.

Menorrhagia and Polymenorrhea

Ground Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French beans), chori bhata*, Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Acorus calamus (Sweet flag), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), C. cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet), and flowers of Rosa indica (Rose) are fried in butter, and then some water is added to make Tringh. This herbal formulation is consumed orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 3 days for the treatment of menorrhagia, and polymenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Menorrhagia and Infertility

Equal amount of ground C. cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Apium graveolens L. (Celery), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Areca catechu (Betel nut), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), Symplocos racemosa (Lodh), behra*, sakhoro*, sugar, and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are taken, and mixed all together. It is advised to take mixture orally twice daily for 5 days.

Menorrhagia and Leucorrhea

Ground C. cyminum, bail pathar*, candy sugar, and 3-4 Trachyspermum ammi (Carom) to obtain a powder, and mixed with water to make paste. This remedy is used orally for 5 days for the treatment of leucorrhea and menorrhagia in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Contraception and Leucorrhea

Sat sutyoon* (purchased from pansar), C. cyminum, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Peganum harmala L. (Harmal), rewal*, and Acorus calamus (Sweet flag) are crushed together to obtain a powder. It is advised to use this remedy orally after 1 hour of lunch for 3 days.

Leucorrhea

  1. Equal quantities of cyminum, Areca catechu (Betel nut), Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are ground to make an oral paste. It is used after 6 days of periods for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Shahdadkot (Sindh).
  2. Equal amount of ground Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), C. cyminum, Anethum sowa (Dill), and Origanum vulgare (Oregano) are mixed together, and powdered. Jaggery is added in butter and integrated into the powdered mixture. Vaginal suppositories are prepared from this mixture. A suppository is advised to place intra-vaginally for 4 nights regularly.
  3. Equal amount of Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Areca catechu (Betel nut), Cassia angustifolia (Indian senna), Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), and C. cyminum are ground together to make a paste. 2 tablespoons of the remedy are advised to take orally with water daily in the morning on an empty stomach.

Shrinking the Abdominal Size after Childbirth

  1. Powdered Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), cyminum, candy sugar, Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Juglans regia (Walnut), Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Liquorice), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), and 2-3 Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug are fried in butter. A tablespoon of this paste used orally in the morning for 4-5 days for shrinking the abdominal size after childbirth in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  2. Ground two table spoon of cyminum, 2-3 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), 4-5 Piper nigrum (Black pepper), Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet), Anethum sowa (Dill), and candy sugar are fried in a cup of butter oil to make paste that is taken orally in the morning for 40 days for shrinking abdominal size after childbirth in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  3. Powdered equal amount of Piper nigrum (Black pepper), cyminum, Cocos nucifera (Coconut), crystal sugar, dried Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), and Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug, and given orally for reducing the abdominal size after childbirth in District Shahdadkot (Sindh).
  4. cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Terminalia chebula Retz. (Balck myrobalau), Ricinus communis L. (Castor) seeds, and Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Bitter apple) are burnt on heating, and inner soft mass is taken out. It is then ground to make suppository. The suppository is advised to place intra-anally at night on alternate days.
  5. Cocos nucifera (Coconut), cyminum, Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Pistacia vera L. (Pistachio), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), char magaz, Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), crystal sugar, and Triticum aestivum (Wheat) are fried in clarified butter. Khonr* and sugar are added in it. 3 table spoon of the remedy is advised to take orally once a day for 10 days.

Labor Pain and Scanty Menses

A tablespoon of Anethum sowa (Dill), 20 g of C. cyminum, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), 2 slug of Mentha piperita (peppermint), and candy sugar are fried in butter, and then water is added in it. This remedy is consumed orally for 3 days in the night for inducing labor pain in District Kashmore (Sindh).

 

 

Prevention of Miscarriage

  1. Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek), cyminum, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), Anethum sowa (Dill), candy sugar, and butter are boiled in 250 mL water. This water is taken orally for the prevention of miscarriage in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  2. Equal amounts of cyminum, Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), and Mentha piperita (Peppermint) are mashed to make vaginal suppositories. It is placed intra-vaginally for 3 nights regularly for the prevention of miscarriage in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  3. Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek), cyminum, Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), Anethum sowa (Dill), and jaggary are crushed. These are added to the 250 mL water along with butter. The mixture is then boiled. It is advised to use this mixture orally twice daily for 6 months.
  4. Equal amount of powdered Areca catechu (Betel nut), cyminum, Punica granatum (Pomegranate), and crystal sugar are taken. 1 table spoon of this powder is mixed in a glass of cold water. A glass of the prepared mixture is advised to be taken orally twice a day for a week.
  5. cyminum is soaked overnight in water and ground in the next morning. Crystal sugar is added in it. It is then sieved and drink for 8 months regularly for prevention of miscarriage. It is also used for inducing abortion for 2 days. It is also used orally on an empty stomach for 2-3 days.

Amenorrhea

  1. Powdered cyminum, Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French beans), achro*, and Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), Areca catechu (Betel nut), candy sugar, and Triticum aestivum (Wheat) flour are fried in butter. It is taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 3 days for the treatment of amenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  2. cyminum, candy sugar, and soaked ghorawal* are mixed with 50 mL butter, and used orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 3 days for the treatment of amenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Dyspareunia and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)

Ground C. cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), 3-4 Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), thank thuryon*, 3-4 Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), kaseely*, Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Tamarix aphylla L. (Salt cedar), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Aloe vera), and crystal sugar are fried in butter. Some water is added to make a remedy. Two tablespoon of this taken orally for 40 days for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STD), as well as dyspareunia in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Dyspareunia

20 g of C. cyminum are fried in 60 g butter and then soaked jaggery is added to make a Tringh. Tringh is used orally for 3 days for the treatment of dyspareunia in District Shahdadkot (Sindh).

Strengthening of Uterus

Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Areca catechu (Betel nut), Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Tamarindus indicum (Tamarind), Holarrhena antidysenterica L. (Tellichery bark and coneru), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), C. cyminum, Anethum sowa (Dill), Cannabis sativa (Marijuana), Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), and crystal sugar are separately powdered. All ingredients are then combined together and tablets are formed out of the mixture. It is advised to place tablet intra-vaginally at night for 2 week. The treatment is extended to a whole month if improvemnet is not seen.

 

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)

  1. Equal amount of Areca catechu (Betel nut), Punica granatum (Pomegranate), C. cyminum, bark of Acacia nilotica (Kikar), and some leaves of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium) are boiled in 2 glasses of water. 2 tablespoons of butter oil, Triticum aestivum L. (Wheat) flour, and small piece of crystal sugar are added in it until 1 glass is remained. It is advised to drink this decoction in the morning on an empty stomach for 3 days.

Chemical Constituents
Major compounds in C. cyminum inculde cuminaldehyde, limonene, α-and β-pinene, 1,8-cineole, O– and p-cymene, α-and γ-terpinene, safranal, and linalool. Seed extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, isoflavonoids, flavonoid glycosides, monoterpenoid glucosides, lignins, alkaloids, and phenolic compounds. Fruits contain fatty oil, resin, mucilage, gum, malates, and albuminous matter3. Two sesquiterpenoid glucosides, cuminoside A and B were isolated. Other compounds isolated from fruits include camphene, verbenene, sabinene, β-pinene, α-phellandrene, cis-ocimene, cis-limonene oxide, p-menth-2-en-1-ol, 2-methyl-4-isopropyliden-cyclopentan-1-al, 2-norpinene, p-cuminaldehyde, 2-caren-10-al, trans-pinocarveol, p-menth-2-en-7-ol, teresantalol, 4-isopropyl-cyclohex-1,3-dien-1-yl methanol, 8α-methyl octahydro-2(1H)- naphthalenone, 2-pinen-10-ol, p-cymen-7-ol, hexadecylene oxide, 2-isopropyl-5-methyl phenol, o-cymen-5-ol, p-cymen-3-ol, karvaknol, and 3-isopropyl phenol4.

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

Seeds of C. cyminum are used in leucorrhea, gynecological complexity, impotence, lumbago, and painful micturation5. Decoction of cumin seeds mixed with milk and honey is used once daily during entire period of pregnancy which helps the healthy development of the baby, ease child birth, and increase the secretion of breast milk6. In the Traditional system of medicine, the various plant parts are used in gastric disorder, fever, skin diseases, and wounds7. Leaves are used for anemia and gingivitis treatment8.

Phytoestrogen is reported for it antiosteoporotic effect2. Various other pharmacological activities shown by plant extracts include immunomodulatory2, CNS9, antiepileptic10, hypolipidemic11, antidiabetic12. Cumin oil, its aqueous, and solvent derived extract showed antioxidant activity13.

REFERENCES

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cumin
  2. Flora of Pakistan: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=200015512.
  3. Bansal, A. (2014). Cumin: A Spice or a Drug?. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2(5), 507-515.
  4. Chaudhary, N. (2014). Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Volatile Oil of the Seeds of Cuminum cyminum . World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(7), 1428-1441.
  5. Nasiruddin, S. (2006). Traditional Uses of Ethnomendicinal Plants of Chittagong Hill Tracts, Dr. M. Matiur Rehman, p. 491. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  6. Pullaiah, T. (2006). Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants, p. 680, Regency Publication, New Delhi, India.
  7. Salim, K. P., and Paarakh, P. M. (2009). Pharmacology Online (2, News Letters), p. 101-122, University of Salerno, Department of Pharmacognosy, The Oxford College of Pharmacy, Bangalore, India.
  8. Laxmi, T., Singhai, A. K., and Praveen, K. (2006). Indian Pharmacist (New Delhi, India), 5(49), 9-13, Bazaz Publications, Madhya Pradesh, India.
  9. Haghparast, A., Shams, J., Khatibi, A., Alizaseh, A. M., and Kamalinejad, M. (2008). Effects of the Fruit Essential Oil of Cuminum cyminum (Apiaceae) on Acquisition and Expression of Morphine Tolerance and Dependence in Mice. Neuroscience Letters, 440, 134-139.
  10. Janahmadi, M., Niazi, F., Danyali, S., and Kamalinejad, M. (2006). Effects of the Fruit Essential Oil of Cuminum cyminum (Apiaceae) on Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Epileptiform Activity in F1 Neurones of Helix Aspersa. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 104, 278-282.
  11. Aruna, K., Rukkumani, R., Varma, P. S., and Menon, V. P. (2005). Therapeutic Role of Cuminum cyminum on Ethanol and Thermally Oxidized Sunflower Oil Induced Toxicity. Phytotherapy Research, 19, 416-421.
  12. Jagtap, A. G., and Patil, P. B. (2010). Antihyperglycemic Activity and Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End Product Formation by Cuminum cyminum in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48, 2030-2036.
  13. Bettaieb, I., Bourgou, S., Wannes, W. A., Hamrouni, I., Limam, F., and Marzouk, B. (2010). Essential Oils, Phenolics and Antioxidant Activities of Different Parts of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58, 10410-18.

 

 

 

Curcuma longa L.

Botanical Name:                 Curcuma longa L.

Kingdom:                              Plantae

Order:                                    Zingiberales

Family:                                  Zingiberaceae

Genus:                                   Curcuma

Sindhi Name:                       Hedr

Local Name:                         Haldi

English Name:                     Turmeric

Part Used:                            Whole plant

Leaves and flower of Curcuma longa L.

 

 

Description

Curcuma longa L. is a perennial plant with roots or tubers oblong-palmate. Leaves are lanceolate and petioled. Flowers are dull yellow and surrounded by bracteolae1. Rhizomes have a brown surface and bright orange or yellow interior flesh2.

Occurrence

  1. longa is native to tropical South Asia. It is also found in China, India, and Africa. Kasur district of Pakistan is known for large production of turmeric. It is cultivated in plains areas of Pakistan.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Expulsion of Umbilical Cord

Oral extract, prepared by boiling Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric) and Cuminum cyminum L. (Cumin) in water are used orally for 6 days for expulsion of umbilical cord in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Sexual Transmitted Diseases

Equal quantities of C. longa, Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Green cardamom), and Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Black cardamom) are ground to obtain powder, and used orally for 3 days for the treatment of sexual transmitted diseases in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Dysmenorrhea

Tablets prepared by crushing C. longa, Acorus calamus L. (Sweet flag), Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (Lodh), Salvia plebeia R. Brown. (Sage weed), Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), and Trachyspermum ammi L. (Carom) , and used intra-vaginally twice a day for 3 days for the treatment  of dysmenorrhea in District Tando Allahyar (Sindh).

 

Dysmenorrhea and Polymenorrhea

Leaves of Calotropis procera W. T. Aiton. (Giant swallow wort) are first mashed and then mixed with kasophal*, Curcuma longa (Turmeric), feces of camel, oil of Sesamum indicum L. (Sesame), and Triticum aestivum L. (Wheat) flour. These ingredients are mixed together and tied in a cloth and advised to place on abdomen for sometime daily for 3 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea and polymenorrhea in District Ghotki (Sindh).

Post Partum Hemorrhage and Prevention of Miscarriage

2 tablespoons of C. longa added in warm water and take a bath with this water daily for 10 minutes for the treatment of post partum hemorrhage in District Kashmore (Sindh). In the same District, this remedy is also useful for the prevention of miscarriage.

Amenorrhea

Two tablespoons of Trachyspermum ammi L. (Carom), Triticum aestivum (Wheat) flour, and C. longa are fried in two tablespoons of butter. Water is added in it and then sieved. It is taken orally twice a day for 3 days for the treatment of amenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents  

Main phytoconstituents of C. longa includes curcumin, desmethoxycurcumin, monodemethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, dihydrocurcumin, and cyclocurcumin. Curcumin comprises curcumins I-III3. Presence of tumerones (A and B), curdione, curzerenone, mono- and di-demethoxycurcumin have been reported in the rhizomes. (6S)-2-methyl-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl-3-methyl)-2-hepten-4-one, bisabolane sesquiterpenes, and two calebin derivatives were also isolated from C. longa4.

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

Rhizome is important part of C. longa used for medicinal purpose in the form of powder. Rhizome is first soaked in water, dried in oven, and then crushed into a powder form. Powder is effective against biliary disorders, anorexia, coryza, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorder, rheumatism, and sinusitis5. Powder form of rhizome is used as a medicine in flatulence, jaundice, menstrual difficulties, hematuria, hemorrhage, and colic. It is also used as an ointment for the treatment of various skin diseases, such as acne, wounds, boils, bruises, blistering, ulcers, eczema, insect bites, parasitic infections, herpes zoster, and pemphigus6.

Petroleum ether and aqueous extracts has antifertility effect and act as novel intravaginal contraceptive2. C. longa extract inhibited bacterial and fungal growth6. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts proved to be analgesic7. Turmeric extract are found to have ulcer protective8, hypoglycemic9, cardiovascular protective, anti-inflammatory10 effect. It is effective in pulmonary fibrosis and alveolar macrophage production10.

REFERENCES

  1. http://ntbg.org/plants/plant_details.php?plantid=3652
  2. Kumar, N., and Sakhya, S. K. (2013). Ethnopharmacological Properties of Curcuma longa: A Review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 4(1), 103-112.
  3. Gupta, S. K. (2010). Phytochemistry of Curcuma longa – An Overview. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, 4(1).
  4. Niazi, J. (2010). Pharmacotherapeutics of Curcuma longa– A Potent Patent. International Journal of Pharma Professional’s Research, 1(1).
  5. Ammon, H. P., Anazodo, M. I., Safayhi, H., Dhawan, B. N., and Srimal, R. C. (1992). Curcumin: A Potent Inhibitor of Leukotriene B4 Formation in Rat Peritoneal Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils (PMNL). Planta Medica, 58, 226.
  6. Labban, L. (2014). Medicinal and Pharmacological Properties of Turmeric (Curcuma longa): A Review. International Journal of Pharmacology and Biomedical Sciences, 5(1), 17-23.
  7. Neha, S. (2009). Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Curcuma longa Rhizome Extracts in Wister Rats. Veterinary World, 2(8).
  8. Kim, D. C., Kim, S. H., Choi, B. H., Baek, N. I., Kim, D., and Kim, M. J. (2005). Curcuma longa Extract Protects against Gastric Ulcers by Blocking H2 Histamine Receptors. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 28(12), 2220-4.
  9. Nishiyama, T., Mae, T., Kishida, H., Tsukagawa, M., Mimaki, Y., and Kuroda, M. (2005). Curcuminoids and Sesquiterpenoids in Turmeric (Curcuma longa) Suppress an Increase in Blood Glucose Level in Type 2 Diabetic KK-Ay Mice. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 53(4), 959-63.
  10. Kumar, A. (2011). A Review on Spice of Life Curcuma longa (Turmeric). International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, 2(4), 371-79.

 

 

 

Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.

Botanical Name:                 Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.

Kingdom:                              Plantae

Order:                                    Fabales

Family:                                   Fabaceae

Genus:                                   Cyamopsis

Local Name:                         Guar phalli

Sindhi Name:                       Guar

English Name:                     Cluster beans

Part Used:                            Beans

Leaves, fruits, and flowers of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.

 

 

Description

Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. is an annual and erect herb with appressed hairs. Leaves are tripinnate while leaflets are elliptic, broad, and pubescent. Flowers are small, purplish in color, and auxillary racemes. Fruits are legume and long1.

Occurrence

  1. tetragonoloba is cultivated in tropical parts of the Pakistan, India, and Afghanistan.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

4 seeds of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. (Cluster beans) are taken orally before clumping of cord after delivery for contraception in Districts Umerkot and Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh). 2-3 seeds of C. tetragonoloba are taken orally with water during menstruation cycle for contraceptive purpose in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

Leaves and pods contain carbohydrates, proteins, fibers, galactomanns, ascorbic acid, condensed tannins, caffic acid, gallic acid, gentisic acid, astragalin, ρ-hydroxycinamyl, and coniferyl alcohol. Various flavonols in guar seeds are diadzein, genistein, quercetin, and kempherol. Polyphenol composition of the plant includes gallotannins, gallic acid, and its derivatives, myricetin-7-glucoside-3-glycoside, chlorogenic acid, ellegic acid, 2,4,3 trihydroxy benzoic acid, texasin-7-O-glucoside, and p-coumaryl quinic acid. 3-epikatonic acid (3β-hydroxyolean- 12-en-29-oic acid), a triterpeniodal saponins isolated from the seeds. Gum obtained from the endosperm of the seeds contains galactomannan. Another important constituent of the guargum is guran. Sterol includes campesterol, avenasterol, δ-7-avenasterol, stigmast-7-enol, brassicasterol, and cholesterol2.
Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

 

  1. tetragonoloba acts as an appetizer, cooling agent, digestive aid, and laxative3. Its gum is used as binder and disintegrator in tablets4. Leaves aid in asthma and cures night blindness, whereas pods and seeds can cure inflammation, sprains, and arthritis2.

An aqueous extract of C. tetragonoloba showed antidiabetic effect5. Alcoholic and aqueous extract possessed antiasthmatic, antihistaminic, antiallergic, adaptogenic6, and anti-inflammatory activities7. Ethanol extract is reported for its antiulcer, cytoprotective, and anticholinergic activities8.

REFERENCES

  1. Pulliah, T. (2006). Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants, 2, p. 693, Regency Publishers, New Delhi, India.
  2. Sharma, P. (2011). Chemical and Medico-biological Profile of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) taub: An Overview. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 1(02), 32-37.
  3. http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1380545577_Mohamed%20et%20al.pd
  4. Bhatacharjee, K. S. (2004). Handbook of Medicinal Plants, p. 120, Pointer Publishers, Jiapur, India.
  5. Mukhtar, H. M., Ansari, S. H., Ali, M., Bhat, A. Z., and Naved, T. (2004). Effect of Aqueous Extract of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba Beans on Blood Glucose Level in Normal and Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 42(12), 1212-1215.
  6. Sharma, P., Hullatti, K. K., Kupastt, I. J., and Sharma, S. (2010). Studies on Anti-Asthmatic Effect of Leaves of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.. Journal of Natural Remedies, 10(1).
  7. Sharma, P., Hullatti, K. K., Kupastt, I. J., and Sharma, S. (2010). Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba Journal of Pharmacology Research, 3(1), 163-165.
  8. Rafatullah, V., Al-Yahya, M. A., Al-Said, M. S., Taragan, K. U., and Mossa, J. S. (1994). Gastric Anti-Ulcer and Cytoprotective Effects of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (Guar) in Rats. Pharmaceutical Biology32(2), 163-170.

 

 

 

Cydonia oblonga Mill.

Botanical Name:                 Cydonia oblonga Mill.

Kingdom:                              Plantae

Order:                                    Rosales

Family:                                   Rosaceae

Genus:                                   Cydonia

Local Name:                         Behidana

Sindhi Name:                       Behdana

English Name:                     Quince

Parts Used:                          All parts

Flowers of Cydonia oblonga Mill.

 

 

Description

Cydonia oblonga Mill. is a deciduous tree, growing 5–8 m tall. Immature fruits are green with dense grey-white pubescence. Leaves are alternately arranged, simple, 6–11 cm long with an entire margin, and densely pubescent with fine white hairs. Flowers are white or pink in color with five petals1.

Occurrence

  1. oblonga is native to warm-temperate southwest Asiain the Caucasusregion.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Miscarriage

Cydonia oblonga Mill. (Quince) and candy sugar are soaked in water for few hours, and then sieved. The extract is taken orally in the morning for 3 days for inducing miscarriage in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Infertility

Powder, prepared from Asparagus adscendens Roxb. (Asparagus), C. oblonga, kanro wakhar*, and candy sugar, is used orally for the treatment of infertility in District Naushahro Feroze (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

  1. oblonga leaf composed of oxalic, citric, malic, quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids2. Main constituents are benzaldehyde, hexadecanoic acid, linalool, (E)-β-Ionone, and germacrene D3. Seeds have composed of lucenin-2, vicenin-2, stellarin-2, isoschaftoside, and schaftoside. Amino acids are glutamic and aspartic acids, and asparagine4. Fruit yields ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, ethyl 3-butenoate, 2-methyl-1-propanol, isoamyl acetate, butyl isobutyrate, ethyl 2-butenoate, butyl butyrate, amyl alcohol, hexyl acetate, and ethyl 3-hexenoate5.

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

 

Leaves and fruits of C. oblonga are effective against cardiovascular diseases, hemorrhoids, bronchial asthma, and cough6. Stem bark is used for the treatment of ulcers. Fruits, and their juice, can be used as a mouthwash or gargle against mouth ulcers and sore throats7. Seeds are used for diarrhea and dysentery8. Herbs are applied on joint inflammation, nipple injuries, and cuts on finger8. Fruit pulp and seeds are employed in dysentery and diarrhea9. Quince are used for strengthening the sexual organs and stomach10.

  1. oblonga exhibited antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiulcerative6, antiallergic, antidiabetic, antihemolytic, antiproliferative, antiradical, wound healing, kidney protecting, and lipid lowering properties12. It has protective effect against oxidative hemolysis of human erythrocytes6.

REFERENCES

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quince.
  2. Oliveira, A. P. (2008) Organic Acids Composition of Cydonia oblonga Miller Leaf. Food Chemistry, 111, 393–399.
  3. Sahli, E., and Tekeli, O. (2012). Evaluation of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness with Spectral Domain Oct in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension. Journal of Clinical Experiment and Ophthalmology, 3, 247.
  4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15702641.
  5. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/jf00070a003.
  6. Nisarg, C. P., and Bhoomika, G. R. (2011). Cydonia vulgaris : A Review on Diversity, Cultivation, Chemistry, and Utilization. Der Pharmacia Lettre, 3(3), 51-61.
  7. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cydonia+oblonga
  8. Pullaiah, T. (2006). Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants, 2, p. 700-701, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.
  9. Khare, P. C. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 190-191, Springer Science Publishers, New York, USA.
  10. http://abchomeopathy.com/r.php/Cyd-v
  11. Emets, Ju. A., Mazurik, V. G., Kolej, O. N., Savost’janova, G. E., and Morozova, I. P. (1999), Patent no: RU 2141773 C1 19991127.
  12. Khoubnasabjafari, M., and Jouyban, A. (2011). A Review of Phytochemistry and Bioactivity of Quince (Cydonia oblonga). Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5(16), 3577-3594.

 

 

 

Daucus carota L.

Botanical Name:            Daucus carota L. sub specie sativas

Kingdom:                          Plantae

Order:                               Apiales

Family:                              Apiaceae

Genus:                              Daucus

Local Name:                    Gajar

Sindhi Name:                  Gajar

Roots of Daucus carota L.

Sub species sativas

English Name:                 Carrot

Part Used:                        Seeds and root

 

Description

Daucus carota L. is a biennial plant. Flowering stem grows up to 1 metre tall, with an umbel of white flowers that produced fruit, a mericarp. Leaves grow in the form of rosettes, while stout taproot grows within the earth1.

Occurrence

  1. carota is native to Europe, North America, and Australia besides southwestern Asia. It is cultivated throughout Pakistan.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Seeds of Daucus carota L. (Carrot) are soaked in water, and sieved in the next morning. This water is used orally in the morning for a month for the treatment of amenorrhea, and scanty menses in District Tando Muhammad Khan (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents
Flavonoids (Apigenin, chrysin, and luteolin) and furanocoumarin (8-Methoxypsoralen and 5-methoxypsoralen) are found in D. carota. Volatile oil in plant comprises α-pinene, geraniol, geranyl acetate, limonene, α-terpinen, ρ-terpinen, α-terpineol, terpinen-4-ol, ρ-decanolactone, β-bisabolene, β-elemene, caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, carotol, daucol, and asarone. Various other constituents of the plant include choline, daucine, fatty acids (Butyric and palmitic), coumarin, and xylitol (Polyol)2.

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

  1. carota is a medicinally important herb to increase the quantity of urine, help in elimination of uric acid3, and for burning sensation in eyes, hands, and feet4. It is used to increase sexual stamina and retentivity3. Seeds are used as aphrodisiac and nervinve tonic. Seeds are also given in uterine pain and for inducing abortion5.
  2. carota shows a beneficial effect in treating cognitive dysfunctions6. Organic solvents extract possess wound healing7, hepatoprotective8, hypoglycemic9, antitumour10, and antiulcer activities12. Aqueous extract of D. carota has anti-inflammatory activity11,12.

REFERENCES

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrot.
  2. http://obtrandon.files.wordpress.com/2010/05/daucus-carota-wild-carrot.pdf
  3. Pullaiah, T. (2006). Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants, 2, p. 738-739, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.
  4. Li, T. S. C. (2000). Medicinal Plants Culture, Utilization and Phytopharmacology, p. 5, CRS Press, New York, USA:
  5. Joshi, S. G. (2000). Medicinal plants, 234, Oxford and IBH publishing co. Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, India.
  6. Vasudevan, M., and Parle, M. (2006). Pharmacological Evidence for the Potential of Daucus carota in the Management of Cognitive Dysfunctions. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin,29(6), 1154-61.
  7. http://www.apjtb.com/zz/2012s2/36.pdf.
  8. Jain, P. K., and Khurana, N. (2012). Hepatoprotective Effect of Carrot (Daucus carota) on Paracetamol Intoxicated Rats, International Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Technology, 1(2).
  9. Ranjbar, B., and Pouraboli,  (2010). Effect of the Methanolic Extract of Daucus Carota Seeds on the Carbohydrate Metabolism and Morphology of Pancreas in  Type I Diabetic Male Rats. Physiology and Pharmacology, 14(1), 85-93.
  10. Majumder, P. K., and Gupta, M. (1998). Effect of the Seed Extract of Carrot (Daucus carota Linn) on the Growth of Ehrlich Ascites Tumour in Mice. Phytotherapy Research, 12(8), 584-585.
  11. Vishwanath, K. M. (2011). Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Daucus carota Root on Experimental Colitis in Rats. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science, 4(1), 337-343.
  12. Wehbe et al. (2009). The Role of Daucus carota in Inflammation and Ulcers, 6(1), article 7.

 

 

 

Elettaria cardamomum Maton.

Botanical Name:                 Elettaria cardamomum Maton.

Kingdom:                              Plantae

Order:                                    Zingiberales

Family:                                  Zingeberaceae

Genus:                                   Elettaria

Local Name:                         Chotti illaichi

Sindhi Name:                       Nandha photta

English Name:                     Green cardamom

 Fruit and Flower of Elettaria cardamomum Maton.

Part Used:                            Seeds

 

Description  

Elettaria cardamomum Maton. is an aromatic, herbaceous, perennial plant with pungent smell and 2–4 m in height. Leaves are alternate in two ranks with a long pointed tip. Flowers are white to lilac or pale violet in color. Fruits is a three-sided, yellow-green pod, and 1-2 cm long, containing several black seeds inside1.

Occurrence

  1. cardamomum is native to southeastern Asia, from India South to Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and Western Indonesia.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Women Diseases

Infertility

  1. Equal quantities of Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom), Anethum sowa Roxb. (Dill), Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek), and candy sugar are fried in half cup of butter, and mixed with a glass of water to make tringh. Tringh is taken orally for the treatment of infertility in District Kamber (Sindh).
  2. Peganum harmala (Harmal), E. cardamomum, and butter oil are boiled in water, and taken orally for the treatment of infertility in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  3. Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris L. (French bean), butter, and E. cardamomum are boiled in water and drink for the treatment of infertility in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  4. Coriandrum sativum (Coriander), ghorawal*, morhyo*, Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), candy sugar, and E. cardamomum are soaked in water at night, and used orally during last three days of periods after sieving in the morning for the treatment of infertility in District Shahdadkot (Sindh).
  5. Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet), flowers of Rosa indica L. (Rose), E. cardamomum, and candy sugar are boiled in 1 glass of water, and used orally for the treatment of infertility in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  6. Vaginal suppositories prepared by grinding Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), wathak*, Cannabis sativa (Marijauna), E. cardamomum, and crystal sugar with some water, are used orally after periods for 6-7 days in the night for the treatment of infertility in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  7. Vaginal suppositories prepared by grinding cardamomum, Eugenia caryyophyllata Thumb. (Cloves), ghorawal*, and Mentha piperita (Peppermint) with some water, are used daily at ninght for 10 days for the treatment of infertility in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  8. Equal quantities of Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet), Anethum sowa (Dill), Trachyspermum ammi (Carom), crystal sugar, E. cardamomum, and candy sugar are ground, and mixed with butter oil, and 2 glass of water. The prepared remedy is used orally for the treatment of infertility in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  9. Vaginal suppositories prepared by grinding Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), E. cardamomum, and candy sugar are ground with butter, are used for the treatment of infertility in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  10. Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet), cardamomum, Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Cannabis sativa (Marijauna), Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce. (Fennel), Areca catechu (Betel nut), Tamarindus indica L. (Tamarind), Quercus infectoria Olivier. (Gall oak), bhati choro*, and candy sugar are mashed to make vaginal suppositories that are placed intra-vaginally at night and removed in the morning for 7 days for the treatment of infertility in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  11. Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Areca catechu (Betel nut), Punica granatum (Pomegranate), cardamomum, Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), and crystal sugar are powdered, and mixed. It is taken orally with water for the treatment of infertility in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  12. Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), cardamomum, Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (Ginger), Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), and candy sugar are boiled in water, and used orally for 3 days for the treatment of infertility in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  13. Anethum sowa (Dill), cardamomum, Vitis vinifera L. (Grapes), candy sugar, and Triticum aestivum L. (Wheat) are boiled in water, and used orally for the treatment of infertility in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  14. Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Piper nigrum (Black pepper), cardamomum, Prunus amygdalus Batsch. (Almond), Pistacia vera L. (Pistachio), crystal sugar, and Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) are ground to make a paste, and used orally for the treatment of infertility in District Jacobabad (Sindh). This remedy is also used for good health after delivery.
  15. cardamomum, Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Piper nigrum (Black pepper), Pistacia vera (Pistachio), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), crystal sugar, and Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) are mashed to obtain a paste, used orally for the treatment of infertility in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  16. Ground cardamomum, Areca catechu (Betel nut), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (Lodh), and leaves and slug of Mentha piperita (Peppermint) to make fine powder, and taken orally with some water for the treatment of infertility in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).
  17. Tablets prepared by grinding Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), cardamomum, and Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Nutmeg) in equal quantities, and placed intra-vaginally in the morning and removed at night for 2 months for the treatment of infertility in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  18. Prunus amygdalus (Almond), cardamomum, and Pistacia vera (Pistachio) are fried in Sindhi oil to make a paste. This paste is used orally for the treatment of infertility in District Tando Muhammad Khan (Sindh).
  19. 2-3 cardamomum, 1 Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), and little bit of rock sugar or candy sugar are ground to make a paste, and taken orally after 3 days of periods for the treatment of infertility in District Larkana (Sindh). Mentha piperita (peppermint) can also be added in this remedy and used for same purpose in District Larkana (Sindh).
  20. Powder of Apium graveolens (Celery), Embelia ribes Burm. f. (False black pepper), Morus acidosa Griff. (Mulberry), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Salvia plebeia R. Brown. (Sage weed), Symplocos recemosa (Lodh), rock sugar, and E. cardamomum is taken in equal amount, and mixed together. Half tablespoon of this powder is taken orally from first day of periods upto 3 days for the treatment of infertility in District Larkana (Sindh).
  21. Crystal sugar, cardamomum, and Trachyspermum ammi (Carom) are converted into fine powder. It is advised to take orally 1 table spoon with a glass of water once daily for 3 days.

Infertility, Dysmenorrhea, and Pelvic Inflammation Diseases

Equal amount of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), E. cardamomum, Anethum sowa (Dill), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), Acorus calamus L. (Sweet flag), Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek), mosfai*, red earth, Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), gondo*, Gossypium arboreum L. (Cotton), and Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug are mashed to make vaginal suppositories. It is placed intra-vaginally at night for a week regularly for the treatment of infertility, dysmenorrhea, and pelvic inflammation diseases in District Kamber (Sindh).

Infertility and Pelvic Inflammation Diseases

  1. Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), cardamomum, and Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (Belliric myrobalau) are ground into paste. One table spoon of this paste is taken orally twice a day for 3 days after menstruation for treatment of infertility and pelvic inflammatory disease in District Kamber (Sindh).
  2. cardamomum is placed intra-anally in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Lactation and Infertility

Two tablespoons of Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), E. cardamomum, and candy sugar are powdered, and taken orally for infertility in District Ghotki (Sindh). This remedy is also used for improving lactation in District Ghotki and Jacobabad (Sindh).

Lactation

  1. Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), cardamomum, crystal sugar, Piper nigrum (Black pepper), candy sugar, dried Cocos nucifera (Coconut), and Triticum aestivum (Wheat) are mixed, and taken orally for improving lactation in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).
  2. Papaver somniferum (Opium), E. cardamomum, Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), and Oryza sativa L. (Rice) are fried in butter to make Rub. It is taken orally for 3 days for improving lactation in District Thatta (Sindh).
  3. Oryza sativa (Rice), cardamomum, and Cuminum cyminum (Cumin) are ground, and taken orally for improving lactation in District Thatta (Sindh).
  4. Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), cardamomum, sugar, and Piper nigrum (Black pepper) are fried in butter oil to make a rub. This rub is used orally for 3 days for improving lactation in District Umerkot (Sindh).
  5. Equal quantities of Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Triticum aestivum (Wheat), cardamomum, Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) or Piper nigrum (Black pepper), and sugar are fried in butter oil, and mixed with a glass of water. This is taken orally as drink for a week for improving lactation in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  6. Two tablespoons Cuminum cyminum (Cumin) and cardamomum are ground in some water to make tablets. These tablets are taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 6-7 days for improving lactation in District Dadu (Sindh).

 

 

Infertility, Menorrhagia, and Strengthening of Uterus

  1. cardamomum, Areca catechu (Betel nut), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), and Symplocos racemosa (Lodh) in equal amount are ground to make oral paste for the treatment of menorrhagia, infertility, and strengthening of uterus in District Shikarpur (Sindh).
  2. Flowers of Acacia nilotica Willd. (Kikar), 2-3 E. cardamomum, and crystal sugar are ground, and taken orally in the morning for 2-3 months for the treatment of menorrhagia, infertility, and strengthening of uterus in District Shikarpur (Sindh).

Infertility and Strengthening of Uterus

Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet), Anethum sowa (Dill), Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek), ghorawal*, and fried E. cardamomum are boiled. The decoction is taken orally for 3 days for the treatment of infertility, and weak uterus in District Shikarpur (Sindh).

Leucorrhea, Infertility, and Strengthening of Uterus

Areca catechu (Betel nut), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), kehra*, and crystal sugar in equal quantities are ground, and mixed with fried E. cardamomum to make an oral paste. This paste is taken for 3 days for the treatment of leucorrhea, infertility, and weak uterus in District Shikarpur (Sindh).

Polymenorrhea and Menorrhagia

  1. Soaked 2-3 bark of Acacia nilotica (Kikar), 2-3 cardamomum, and 2 table spoons butter are mixed, and boiled in water to make an oral remedy that is used for the treatment of polymenorrhea, as well as menorrhagia in District Kamber (Sindh).
  2. Equal amount of Areca catechu (Betel nut), Juniperus communis (Juniper), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), E. cardamomum, and Anethum sowa (Dill) are soaked in water, and used orally for the regulating menstrual cycle in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
  3. Equal quantities of fresh leaves of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), Cannabis sativa (Marijuana), cardamomum, Terminalia chebula Retz. (Black myrobalau), crystal sugar, and candy sugar are boiled and then sieved. The decoction is taken orally twice a day for 6-7 days for regulating menstrual disorders, such as, menorrhagia, as well as polymenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  4. Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), reh*, and cardamomum are boiled in water. Symplocos racemosa (Lodh) is taken orally with this water for the treatment of menorrhagia and polymenorrhea in District Khairpur (Sindh).
  5. Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), raswal*, cardamomum, Mentha piperita (Peppermint), crystal sugar, and candy sugar are ground to make tablets. These tablets are placed intra-vaginaly at night for 3 days for the treatment of menorrhagia and polymenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  6. Ground Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), chori bhata, Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Acorus calamus (Sweet flag), cardamomum, Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet) and flowers of Rosa indica (Rose) are fried in butter and then some water is added to make tringh. This herbal formulation is taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 3 days for the treatment of menorrhagia, and polymenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  7. Areca catechu (Betel nut), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Anethum sowa (Dill), and Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), 3-4 cardamomum, and 1 Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom) are ground in equal quantities, and fried in butter and water. This formulation is taken orally thrice a day for first two months for regulating menstrual cycle in District Jamshoro (Sindh).

 

Dysmenorrhea

  1. Fresh leaves of Lallemantia royleana (Balck psyllium), 2 tablespoon Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), and cardamomum are ground in some water to make oral tablets for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Dadu (Sindh).
  2. Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek), Anethum sowa (Dill), Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), and cardamomum are soaked in equal quantities, and used orally for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Kamber (Sindh).
  3. 1 tablespoon of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), 2-3 cardamomum, candy sugar, some flowers of Rosa indica (Rose), Cassia fistula L. (Golden shower), and 2 table spoon butter oil are boiled in water. This water is consumed orally for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  4. Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Cassia angustifolia (Indian Senna) or Cannabis sativa (Marijuana), E. cardamomum, and leaves of Lallemantia royleana (Black Psyllium) are ground to make tablets. These tablets are placed intra-vaginally for 3 nights for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  5. cardamomum, dried petals of Rosa indica (Rose), little bit of Trachyspermum ammi (Carom), and candy sugar are boiled. This water is taken orally for first 3 days of menstruation for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Tando Jam (Sindh).
  6. Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), cardamomum, and Cuminum cyminum (Cumin) are ground to make vaginal suppositories for 3 nights for dysmenorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  7. Ground 32 herbs (purchased from pansar), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), and 3-4 cardamomum to make paste, used orally for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Dadu (Sindh).
  8. cardamomum, and Trachyspermum ammi (Carom) are ground and mixed with 3 tablespoon mustard oil. Cotton swab is then dipped in this paste and placed intra-vaginally for 3 nights for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Dadu (Sindh).
  9. 3-4 cardamomum, Trapa bispinosa Roxb. (Water chestnut), candy sugar, crystal sugar, and 250 mL butter oil are boiled in 500mL milk. This is taken orally once a day for a week for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  10. cardamomum, fresh leaves of Cannabis sativa (Marijauna), Lallemantia royleana (Black psylium), Acorus calamus (Sweet flag), and slug of Mentha piperita (Peppermint) are ground to make tablets. It is placed intra-vaginally for 2 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  11. Equal quantities of Areca catechu (Betel nut), Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), 4-5 cardamomum, 2 slug of Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Triticum sativum L. (Wheat), and candy sugar are fried in 250 mL butter oil, and taken orally for dysmenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  12. Ground Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Piper nigrum (Black pepper), cardamomum, Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Anethum sowa (Dill), crystal sugar, candy sugar, and butter to obtain a paste, used for dysmenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  13. Anethum sowa (Dill), cardamomum, Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), Cannabis sativa (Marijuana), Acorus calamus (Sweet flag), slug of Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Terminalia chebula (Black myrobalau), Terminalia bellirica (Belliric myrobalau), and zaifan wari sutti (Purchased from pansar) are ground. This powder is then mixed with Withania coagulans Dunal. (Vegetable rennet) and jaggery to make tablets. It is placed 11 nights regularly for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  14. 2-3 cardamomum, 1 Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), and candy sugar are mashed to make vaginal suppositories for dysmenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  15. Ground Cocos nucifera (Coconut), 3-4 cardamomum, Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), Pinus gerardiana Wall. ex D. Don. (Pinus), Pistacia vera (Pistachio), Juglans regia L. (Walnut), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Piper nigrum (Black pepper), Papaver somniferum (Opium), Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug, Triticum aestivum (Wheat), and butter are boiled in water, and used orally for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Polymenorrhea

  1. Boiled 3-4 Metroxylon sagu (Sogo), 3-4 E. cardamomum, and crystal sugar in milk and this milk is used orally twice a day for 5-6 days for the treatment of polymenorrhea in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  2. In 150 g of hot butter oil, cardamomum, Prunus amygdalus (Almond), and Piper nigrum (Black pepper) are fried, and consumed orally thrice a day while walking for polymenorrhea in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).
  3. cardamomum is fried in 3 tablespoon butter and then taken orally for polymenorrhea in District Thatta (Sindh).
  4. cardamomum, Trachyspermum ammi (Carom), Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet), and crystal sugar are ground in 250 mL water, and drink thrice a day for 3 days for polymenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  5. Cannabis sativa (Marijauna), Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), cardamomum, and sonu ghero* are mashed to prepare vaginal suppositories, used for the treatment of polymenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Menorrhagia

  1. Peel of Punica granatum (Pomegranate), cardamomum, crystal sugar, Terminalia bellirica (Belliric myrobalau), bharyo bhanri*, Mentha piperita (Peppermint) are soaked in mud pan (hot) in 1 kg of water, and a cup of this water is taken orally thrice a day for 3-4 days for the treatment of menorrhagia in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  2. 4 Terminalia chebula (Black myrobalau), 2 cardamomum, and 1 tablespoon Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) seeds are soaked in half glass water, and taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 7 days for the treatment of menorrhagia in District Umerkot (Sindh).
  3. Myrtus communis (Myrtle), 2-3 E. cardamomum, and crystal sugar are boiled in water, and drink in the morning for 6 days for the treatment of menorrhagia in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  4. Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Trachyspermum ammi (Carom), crystal sugar, candy sugar, cardamomum, and Terminalia bellirica (Belliric myrobalau) are ground, and boiled in 1 glass of water. 3 tablespoons butter is then added in this remedy and taken orally twice a day for 3 days for the treatment of menorrhagia in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  5. Myrtus communis (Myrtle), 2-3 cardamomum, Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), and crystal sugar are boiled in water, and used orally twice a day for 12-15 days for the treatment of menorrhagia in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  6. Tablets are prepared by grinding Embelia ribes (False black pepper) and cardamomum, and placed intra-vaginally for 3 days during periods for the treatment of menorrhagia in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
  7. Powdered leaves of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), crystal sugar, and cardamomum (Green cardamom) are mixed with Triticum aestivum (Wheat) flour to prepare unleavened bread. This bread is advised to eat daily for 3 days.

Inducing Labor Pain

  1. Vaginal suppositories, prepared with Cocos nucifera (Coconut), crystal sugar, Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), 4-5 Prunus amygdalus (Almond), 3-4 Phoenix dactylifera (Date palm), 2 slug of Mentha piperita (Peppermint), mosfai*, 3-4 E. cardamomum, 2 Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), and 2 candy sugar are used for inducing labor pain in District Kamber (Sindh).
  2. Cotton swab, dipped in a mixture of cardamomum powder mixed with 2 tablespoon mustard oil are placed intra-vaginally for inducing labor pain in District Dadu (Sindh).
  3. 2-3 cardamomum are boiled in 250 mL of milk and butter, and used for inducing labor pain in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  4. 4 candy sugar, cardamomum, and Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom) are boiled in 250mL of milk alongwith 50mL butter oil for 3 days in summer for inducing labor pain in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  5. 1 Tablespoon Anethum sowa (Dill), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), 3-4 cardamomum, and 2 slug of Mentha piperita (Peppermint) are fried in butter oil, and then small piece of jaggery, wheat, and some water is added. The remedy is used orally at the time of delivery for inducing labor pain in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  6. 3-4 cardamomum, 4-5 Piper nigrum (Black pepper), 2 tablespoon Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), and 1 cup of butter oil are ground, and used orally for inducing labor pain in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  7. Vaginal suppositories prepared by grinding cardamomum, Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), Eugenia caryyophyllata (Cloves), candy sugar, and Piper nigrum (Black pepper) are used for inducing labor pain in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  8. Cannabis sativa (Marijauna), 3-4 cardamomum, Embelia robusta (False black pepper), Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Aloe), and salt are ground, and make a vaginal suppositories placed in the morning for inducing labor pain in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  9. 2-3 cardamomum, butter oil, and sugar are boiled in milk, and used orally for inducing labor pain in District Larkana (Sindh). Mentha piperita (peppermint) can also be added in this remedy and used for the same purpose.
  10. Ground 5-6 slug of Mentha piperta (peppermint), crystal sugar, and 5-6 cardamomum are boiled in 250 mL of milk, used orally for inducing labor pain in District sanghar (Sindh).
  11. cardamomum and small amount of butter oil are mixed in tea without milk, and used orally for inducing labor pain in District sanghar (Sindh).
  12. Intra-vaginal suppositories are prepared by grinding some seeds of cardamomum and then dipped in mustard oil before use thrice a day for inducing labor pain in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).
  13. cardamomum and Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) are boiled in milk, and used for inducing labor pain in District Sukkur (Sindh).

Dyspareunia

  1. Ground Cocos nucifera (Coconut), 3-4 cardamomum, Pinus gerardiana (Pinus), Pistacia vera (Pistachio), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), and Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug are mixed with butter, and this paste is taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 8-10 days for the treatment of dyspareunia in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  2. Equal amount of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), Trachyspermum ammi (Carom), Areca catechu (Betel nut), fresh leaves of Azadirachta indica Juss. (Margose), Cannabis sativa (Marijauna), 4-5 E. cardamomum, and 2-3 slug of Mentha piperita (Peppermint) are mashed together to make vaginal suppositories for the treatment of dyspareunia in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  3. Cocos nucifera (Coconut), cardamomum, Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Piper nigrum (Black pepper), and crystal sugar are powdered, and mixed together. It is used for the treatment of dyspareunia in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  4. Baked clay, Origanum vulgare (Oregano), and cardamomum are ground, and intra-vaginally tablets are prepared and used for 5 days for the treatment of dyspareunia in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).
  5. Equal quantities of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), 3-4 cardamomum, Cannabis sativa (Marijuana), Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), and Mentha piperita (Peppermint) are gorund, and placed intra-vaginally twice a day for 5-6 days for the treatment of dyspareunia in District Kamber (Sindh).
  6. Equal amount of Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Embelia robusta (Embelia), Acorus calamus (Sweet Flag), cardamomum, and Cannabis sativa (Marijuana) are ground, and mixed with butter to make intra-vaginal tablets that is used for the treatment of dyspareunia in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Strengthening of Uterus

  1. Ground 1 tablespoon Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), 2 slug of Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Cannabis sativa (Marijauna) leaves, and 3-4 cardamomum are used to make intra-vaginal tablet which is placed at night removed in the morning and used for 3 days for the strengthening of uterus in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  2. Ground Cocos nucifera (Coconut), cardamomum, Piper nigrum (Black pepper), candy sugar, and crystal sugar are mixed with butter, boiled in water, and taken orally thrice a day for 12 days for strengthening of uterus in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  3. Powdered mixture of Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Juglans regia (Walnut), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), cardamomum, char magaz, kaju*, safeed mirch*, and Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) are prescribed orally twice a day for 10 days for strengthening of uterus in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  4. Equal quantities of Symplocos racemosa (Lodh), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Areca catechu (Betel nut), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), and 6-7 cardamomum are ground, and taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 10 days for strengthening of uterus in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  5. Tablets prepared by grinding Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Areca catechu (Betel nut), cardamomum, Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), Holarrhena antidysenterica L. (Tellichery bark and coneru), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Anethum sowa (Dill), Cannabis sativa (Marijuana), Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), and crystal sugar. Tablet is placed intra-vaginally at night for 2 weeks regularly for strengthening of uterus in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Post Partum Heamorrhage

  1. Vaginal suppositories are prepared by grinding Cannabis sativa (Marijuana) leaves, cardamomum, leaves of Lallemantia royleana (Black psylium), Terminalia chebula (Black myrobalau), Terminalia bellirica (Belleric myroblan), and crystal sugar, and placed at night for 3 days for the treatment of post partum heamorrhage in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  2. cardamomum, Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), crystal sugar, and candy sugar are mashed to make vaginal suppositories used for the treatment of post partum heamorrhage in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Shrinking Abdominal Size after Child Birth

  1. Ground 2 tablespoon of Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), 2-3 cardamomum, 4-5 Piper nigrum (Black pepper), Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet), Anethum sowa (Dill), and jaggery are fried in a cup of butter oil to make paste. Two tablespoon of this paste is taken orally in the morning for 40 days for shrinking abdominal size after childbirth in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  2. Equal quantities of Cocos nucifera (Coconut), crystal sugar, Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug, cardamomum, dried Zingiber officinale (Ginger), and Piper nigrum (Black pepper) are powdered separately, and then mixed. This powder is used for shrinking abdominal size after delivery in District Shahdadkot (Sindh).
  3. Fried Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Pistacia vera (Pistachio), cardamomum, char magaz, Coriandrum sativum (Coriander), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), crystal sugar, and Triticum aestivum (Wheat) in butter oil, and then khonr* are added. This herbal formulation is prescribed once a day for 10 days for shrinking abdominal size after delivery in District Tando Allahyar (Sindh).

Scanty Menses

  1. 2 Tablespoon of Cuminum cyminum (Cumin) and 2-3 Cardamomum are powdered, and a tablespoon of this powder is taken orally for 3-4 days for the treatment of scanty menses in District Dadu (Sindh).
  2. Ground 3-4 cardamomum and small piece of crystal sugar are taken orally twice a day for 3-4 days for scanty menses in District Dadu (Sindh).
  3. Oral extract prepared by grinding Cannabis sativa (marijuana) leaves, cardamomum, leaves of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), Acorus calamus (Sweet flag), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), and Mentha piperita (Mint slug). It is then boiled and used in the morning on an empty stomach for 3 days for the treatment of scenty menses in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  4. Anethum sowa (Dill), 20 g of Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), cardamomum, and candy sugar are fried in 60 gm butter, and used this paste orally for 3 nights for the treatment of scanty menses in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Amenorrhea

  1. cardamomum, Anethum sowa (Dill), Trachyspermum ammi (Carom), crystal sugar, candy sugar, and butter oil are ground, and boiled with 1 glass of water. It is used orally twice a day for 3 days for the treatment of amenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  2. Ground Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), 3-4 cardamomum, Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), Pinus gerardiana (Pinus), Pistacia vera (Pistachio), Juglans regia (Walnut), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Piper nigrum (Black pepper), Papaver somniferum (Opium), Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug, Triticum aestivum (Wheat), and butter are boiled in water till it dried. The paste is used orally for the treatment of amenorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  3. Soaked Anethum sowa (Dill), cardamomum, and butter are boiled, and drink this water for amenorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  4. cardamomum, Cassia angustifolia (Indian senna), candy sugar, Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet), and butter are boiled in 2 glass of water, and drink this water for amenorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  5. Ground halio*, Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek), and cardamomum in equal quantities, and are fried in 50 mL butter to make an oral remedy for amenorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Backache

  1. 4-5 cardamomum, mawa*, rock sugar or 5-6 candy sugar, and Piper nigrum (Black pepper) are ground, and taken orally for reducing backache during menstruation in District Larkana (Sindh).
  2. Apium graveolens (Celery), Embelia ribes (False black pepper), Morus acidosa (Mulberry), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), rock sugar, cardamomum, Areca catechu (Betel nut), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), slug of Mentha piperita (Peppermint), and crystal sugar are ground to make fine powder. A tablespoon of this powder is used orally twice a day for 5-7 days for the treatment of backache during menstruation and pregnancy in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).
  3. Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), cardamomum, Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), and Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) are first mashed, and then fried in butter. It is taken orally after one hour of lunch for 3 days as a remedy for backache in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  4. Intra-anal tablets, prepared by grinding Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), cardamomum, Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), and Prunus amygdalus (Almond) are given for relieving backache during menstruation in District Shikarpur (Sindh).
  5. cardamomum, Cocos nucifera (Coconut), butter, Phoenix dactylifera (Date palm) are ground to make anal suppositories, and used for 3 days for relieving backache during menstruation in District Shikarpur (Sindh).

Conceiving Male Child

  1. Fruit of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schard. (Bitter apple) are covered in cow dung and burnt. Soft mass of burnt fruit is boiled in cow’s milk and then sieved. Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), cardamomum, and rock sugar is then added in the milk, and cooked till it becomes thick. Intra-anal suppositories are prepared from this mixture and used by the ladies for conceiving male child in District Matiari (Sindh).
  2. 250 g of Quercus infectoria (Gall oak) and cardamomum are mashed to make vaginal suppositories, used for conceiving male child in District Kamber (Sindh).
  3. Equal quantities of Holarrhena antidysenterica (Tellichery bark and coneru), Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Juglans regia (Walnut), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Cassia absus (Pig’s senna), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), E. cardamomum, and Pistacia vera (Pistachio) are ground, and intra-anal tablets are prepared for conceiving male child in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Leucorrhea

  1. Vaginal suppositories are prepared by grinding Anethum sowa (Dill) and cardamomum, and dipped in mixture of warm black glycerin, and mashed leaves of Salvadora oleiodes
    Decne. (Trooth brush) for 3 days for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  2. 3-4 cardamomum, 250 g chowan*, and 500 g flour of pulse are fried, and taken orally for curing leucorrhea in District Thatta (Sindh).
  3. Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), cardamomum, Areca catechu (Betel nut), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Symplocos racemosa (Lodh), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), cuttle fish bone, and peel of Punica granatum (Pomegranate) are ground to make vaginal suppositories, and used twice a day for 3 days for curing leucorrhea in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).
  4. Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), harra, Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), cardamomum, and crystal sugar are powdered, and used orally once a day at night for a week for leucorrhea in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  5. Ground leaves of Cannabis sativa (Marijuana), Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium) leaves, 3-4 cardamomum, 5-6 Terminalia bellirica (Belliric myrobalau), and 2-3 Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug to make intra-vaginal tablets, which is used for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Kashmore.
  6. Ground Cannabis sativa (Marijuana), Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium) leaves, and 3-4 cardamomum, are mixed with butter to make intra-vaginal tablets, which is used at night and removed in the morning for 3 days for curing leucorrhea in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  7. cardamomum, Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Areca catechu (Betel nut), Cassia angustifolia (Indian senna), Ammomum subulatum (Black cardamom), Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), and Cuminum cyminum (Cumin) are ground in equal quantities, and two tablespoon prescribed orally in the morning on an empty stomach for leucorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  8. Leaves of Lallemantia royleana (Black psyllium), Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Acorus calamus (Sweet flag), and Elettaria cardamomum (Green cardamom) are ground in equal quantities, and used intra-vaginally for leucorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  9. Vaginal suppositories are prepared from ground Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom) and cardamomum, and then dipped in wine, black and white glycerin, and then used at night for 3 days for curing leucorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  10. 4-5 cardamomum, Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Areca catechu (Betel nut), crystal sugar, and kapi khero* are taken in equal quantities, and ground to make an oral paste used for 3-5 days for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Shahdadkot (Sindh).
  11. Equal quantities of Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Areca catechu (Betel nut), Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), and cardamomum, are ground to make an oral paste, and used during periods for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Shahdadkot (Sindh).

Prolapsed Uterus

  1. cardamomum and Cicer aestivum (Chickpea) are ground to make vaginal suppositories and used for 5-6 days for the treatment of prolapsed uterus in District Shikarpur (Sindh).

Dilation and Curettage

  1. Areca catechu (Betel nut), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Symplocos racemosa (Lodh), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), petals of Rosa indica (Rose), and cardamomum are ground to make intra-vaginal tablets for dilation and curettage in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).
  2. Fruits of Azadirachta indica (Margose), mosfa*, crystal sugar, and cardamomum are crushed into powder form, and mixed with few drops of butter oil to make intra-vaginal tablets for dilation and curettage in District Shaheed Benazirabad (Sindh).

Leucorrhea, Polymenorrhea, Strengthening of Uterus, and Miscarriage

  1. cardamomum, Terminalia chebula (Black myrobalau), Terminalia bellirica (Belleric muroblan), Polygonum bistorta L. (Bistort), seeds of Punica granatum (Pomegranate), Cichorium intybus L. (Chicory), crystal sugar, Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), and flowers of Rosa indica (Rose) are mixed together and ground. A tablespoon of this remedy is used orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 3 days for the treatment of leucorrhea, and polymenorrhea, and for the prevention of miscarriage in District Kashmore. This remedy is used orally for strengthening of uterus in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Prevention of Miscarriage, Menorrhagia, and Leucorrhea

Peel of Punica granatum (Pomegranate) fruit, E. cardamomum, and crystal sugar are soaked in water, and this water is orally consumed in the morning for 6-7 days for the treatment of menorrhagia and leucorrhea in District Ghotki (Sindh). It is also prescribed orally thrice a day for a month for the prevention of miscarriage in District Ghotki (Sindh). This remedy is also consumed once a day for 3 days  for the treatment of leucorrhea in District Ghotki (Sindh).

Infertility and Menorrhagia

Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Areca catechu (Betel nut), Punica granatum (Pomegranate), E. cardamomum,  Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), and crystal sugar are ground to make powder. It is taken orally once a day in the morning with water for 5-6 days for the treatment of infertility as well as menorrhagia in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

 

 

Infertility, Amenorrhea, and Menorrhagia

  1. Intra-vaginal tablets are prepared by grinding Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), and cardamomum. These tablets are used after periods for 3-4 days for the treatment infertility, it is also used until periods start for amenorrhea, and menorrhagia in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  2. Extract is prepared by grinding Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), and cardamomum, and then boiled in some water. Extract is used orally for the treatment infertility, amenorrhea, and menorrhagia in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Leucorrhea, Menorrhagia, and Prevention of Miscarriage

Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), some pollen grains of Punica granatum (Pomegranate), little bit of rock sugar, 3-4 E. cardamomum, and 3-4 slug of Mentha piperita (Peppermint) are ground, and taken orally with milk or water in the morning for 15 days for the treatment of leucorrhea, menorrhagia, and for the prevention of abortion in District Jamshoro (Sindh).

Dysmenorrhea, Leucorrhea, and Post Partum Hemorrhage

Ground Areca catechu (Betel nut), Apium graveolens (Celery), Embelia ribes (False black pepper), Anethum sowa (Dill), E. cardamomum, and bark of Punica granatum (Pomegranate) are used to make a paste, which is taken orally for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in District Kamber (Sindh). A tablespoon of this remedy is also prescribed twice a day for 4-5 days for leucorrhea, as well as post partum hemorrhage in the same District.

Dysmenorrhea and Infertility

Flowers of Rosa indica (Rose), E. cardamomum, and crystal sugar are ground, and taken orally with milk for the treatment of dysmenorrhea and infertility in District Ghotki (Sindh).

Dysmenorrhea and Amenorrhea

  1. Flowers of Rosa indica (Rose), cardamomum, Trachyspermum ammi (Carom), and Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) are boiled in some milk. This milk is consumed orally for the treatment of dysmenorrhea and amenorrhea in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  2. Boti madra*, Mentha piperita (Peppermint), Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), and cardamomum are powdered that is taken with water for regulating the menstrual cycle, disturbed by dysmenorrhea and amenorrhea in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Expulsion of Umbilical Cord and Dysmeorrhea

Anethum sowa (Dill), E. cardamomum, Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), and Piper nigrum (Black pepper) are fried in butter, and taken orally with water for the expulsion of umbilical cord in District Sukkur (Sindh). This remedy is also prescribed for the treatment of dysmenorrhea in same District.

Dysmenorrhea, Dyspareunia and Strengthening Uterus

Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Triticum aestivum (Wheat), Vitis vinifera (Grapes), Prunus amygdalus (Almond), E. cardamomum, and Cucumis melo L. (Muskmelon) are fried in butter oil to make a paste, and used 3 tablespoon of this orally in the morning for 3 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia in District Tando Muhammad Khan (Sindh). Three tablespoon of this formulation is also given orally in the morning for a month for strengthening of uterus in District Tando Muhammad Khan (Sindh).

 

Dysmenorrhea and Menorrhagia

Powdered Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume. (Chinese cassia), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French beans), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), E. cardamomum, candy sugar, and achro* are fried in butter oil to make a paste, and two tablespoon of  this paste is used in the morning on an empty stomach for 3 days for the treatment of dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) and Infertility

Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet), E. cardamomum, and crystal sugar in equal quantities are ground, and mixed with some water to make a paste. Small intra-vaginal tablets are prepared and placed in vagina for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in District Kamber (Sindh). This paste is also taken orally for 3 days for infertility in District Ghotki (Sindh).

Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD)

  1. Powder of Curcuma longa (Turmeric), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), cardamomum, and Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom) are mixed in equal quantities, and used orally in the morning for 3 days for the treatment of sexual transmitted diseases (STD) in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  2. 2-3 cardamomum, Anethum sowa (Dill), and Mentha piperita (Peppermint) slug are mashed, and mixed with some water to make intra-vaginal tablets that is used at night for 3 days for the treatment of sexually transmitted disease (STD) in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Sexually Transmitted Disease and Dyspareunia

Ground Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), 3-4 E. cardamomum, Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), thank thuryon*, 3-4 Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Salvia plebeia (Sage weed), kaseely*, Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), Tamarix aphylla L. (Salt cedar), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Aloe vera), and crystal sugar fried in clarified butter, and make a paste. This paste is given orally for 40 days for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases and two tablespoon of the paste recommended for 40 dasy for the treatment of dyspareunia in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Contraception and Leucorrhea

Sat sutyoon (purchased from pansar), Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), E. cardamomum, Peganum harmala (Harmal), raswal*, Acorus calamus (Sweet flag), and mar mushik* are powdered, and used orally twice a day for 3 days as a contraceptive in District Jacobabad (Sindh). It is also used orally for the treatment of leucorrhea in same District.

Leucorrhea, Infertility, and Strengthening Uterus

Intra-vaginal tablets, prepared by grinding of dry fruits*, dried Cocos nucifera (Coconut), Anethum sowa (Dill), candy sugar, Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Mentha piperita (Peppermint), sinyar*, jaggery, Acorus calamus (Sweet flag), Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), crystal sugar, Punica granatum (Pomegranate), mosfa*, Rosa indica (Rose), E. cardamomum,  dakh*, and mustard oil, are used for the treatment of leucorrhea and infertility in District Jamshoro (Sindh). This remedy is also used for strengthening of uterus in the same District.

 

 

 

Lactation and Abortion

Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), 3-4 E. cardamomum, 4-5 Piper nigrum (Black pepper), and candy sugar are fried in 2 tablespoon butter oil, and this paste is used orally in the morning for 3-4 days for improving lactation, as well as for inducing abortion in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Irregular Menstruation

20 g of Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), Anethum sowa (Dill), candy sugar, slug of Mentha piperita (Peppermint), and E. cardamomum are fried in 60 g of butter. This is known as Tringh. Tringh is taken orally for 3 nights for irregular menstruation in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Pelvic Inflammation Diseases and Menorrhagia

Tablets are prepared by grinding 3-4 E. cardamomum, Embelia robusta (Embelia), Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean), Tamarindus indica (Tamarind), Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), Cannabis sativa (Marijuana), Aloe vera (Aleo), and 1 small spoon of salt. The tablet is placed intra-vaginally and replace with the new one in the next morning for 3 days for the treatment of pelvic inflammation diseases as well as menorrhagia in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Leucorrhea and Dysmenorrhea

Oral extract, prepared by boiling Cinnamomum zeylanicum Garcin ex. Blume (True cinnamomum), 1 tablespoon Trachyspermum ammi (Bishop’s weed), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), 2 Amomum subulatum (Black cardamom), and 5-6 E. cardamomum in water, is used for 3 days for the treatment of leucorrhea and dysmenorrhea in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Menorrhagia, Amenorrhea, Scanty Menses, and Leucorrhea

Mixture of ground Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), crystal sugar, and E. cardamomum is used orally twice a day for 7-8 days for the treatment of menorrhagia, amenorrhea, scanty menses, and leucorrhea in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Pelvic Inflammation Diseases and Conceiving Male Child

Ground Cuminum cyminum (Cumin), crystal sugar, Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet), and E. cardamomum mixed as a paste, and tablets are made. The tablets are taken orally with water for the treatment of pelvic inflammation diseases. Intra-anal tablets are also used for same diseases. This remedy is also prescribed orally for conceiving male child in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Fibroid Uterus, Pelvic Inflammation Diseases, and Irregular Menses

Ground Anethum sowa (Dill), Origanum vulgare (Oregano), and E. cardamomum are used to make vaginal suppositories. These suppositories are dipped in butter oil and placed intra-vaginally for 3 nights for the treatment of pelvic inflammation diseases in District Jacobabad (Sindh). This remedy is also used orally for 4 days for the treatment of fibroid uterus as well as of irregular menses in same District.

Fibroid Uterus and Post Partum Hemorrhage

1 Tablespoon Areca catechu (Betel nut), Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel), 1 slug of Mentha piperita (Peppermint), and 4 E. cardamomum are crushed into a powder form that is taken orally for the treatment of fibroid uterus as well as post partum hemorrhage in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Fibroid Uterus

Origanum vulgare (Oregano), 5-6 E. cardamomum, butter oil, rock sugar, and Piper nigrum (Black pepper) are ground to make intra-vaginal tablets for curing fibroid uterus in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Leucorrhea, Infertility, and Strengthening of Uterus

cardamomum, Areca catechu (Betel nut), Quercus infectoria (Gall oak), dry Mangifera indica L. (Mango) seed, and crystal sugar in equal amount are ground to make an oral paste. It is prescribed orally twice a day with milk for a week for the treatment of leucorrhea, infertility, and strengthening of uterus in District Shikarpur (Sindh).

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