Amenorrhea is the absence of menstruation, and can be either primary or secondary. Primary amenorrhea is failure to menstruate by age 16 years in girls who have normal puberty, by age 14 years in those with delayed puberty, or two years after sexual maturation has occurred.
Secondary amenorrhea refers to the absence of menstruation after an interval of normal menstruation.
Causes and Risk Factor
Primary amenorrhea may be caused by genetic disorders, hormonal imbalance, brain defects, or physical abnormality of the reproductive organs. In addition, certain systemic diseases may delay puberty and menstruation. Delayed menstruation may occur in athletes, especially gymnasts, ballerinas, and long-distance runners because of insufficient body fat. Amenorrhea associated with athletic training and professional dance is a growing health concern, however, because it often occurs together with eating disorders and a loss of bone mass that can lead to early osteoporosis.
Secondary amenorrhea can be caused by pregnancy, weight loss, excessive exercise, breast feeding, disease, or menopause. Menopause takes place when the ovaries stop producing estrogen, causing periods to become irregular and then stop. It generally occurs when a woman is between 48 and 52 years of age.
Contraception is the use of a method, device, or medication to prevent pregnancy by interfering with ovulation, fertilization, and/or implantation. Another term for contraception is birth control.
Birth control methods vary in targeting different aspects of this monthly process. The primary methods of birth control are
Intrauterine devices (IUDs)
Surgical and periodic abstinence.
Complications of contraception vary according to the method used.
Hormonal complications produce an imbalance to the particular hormone and dosage used. Bleeding between periods or difficulty regaining regular menstruation or fertility following their discontinuance may occur.
Barrier methods may produce a local reaction to the use of spermicide.
Diaphragm use is associated with the risk of toxic shock syndrome. Individuals unaware of their latex allergy may have a small allergic reaction, or could go into anaphylaxis.
IUDs do have a serious but rare risk of puncturing the uterine wall, and also carry a risk of pelvic inflammatory disease with potential complications such as sterility if untreated.
Surgical sterilization involves the risks of surgery, such as bleeding, or infection due to the anesthesia used. Vasectomy is only effective once all stored sperm has been ejaculated. Fertility awareness carries a higher risk of pregnancy, and if hands are not washed prior to checking the cervical mucus, bacteria could be introduced into the vagina and spread.
DYSFUNCTIONAL UTERINE BLEEDING
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is excessive or irregular bleeding from the uterus. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is irregular, abnormal uterine bleeding that is not caused by a tumor, infection, or pregnancy.
Abnormal bleeding can be caused by fibroids (noncancerous uterine growths), endometriosis (when endometrium spreads outside of the uterus), uterine infections, hypothyroidism, clotting problems, intrauterine devices (IUD), or cancer
Menorrhagia: Menorrhagia sometimes called hypermenorrhea. In menorrhagia, menstrual periods occur regularly, but last more than seven days, and blood loss exceeds 3 oz (88.7 ml).
Metrorrhagia: Metrorrhagia is bleeding between menstrual periods. Bleeding is heavy and irregular as opposed to ovulatory spotting which is light bleeding, in mid-cycle, at the time of ovulation.
Polymenorrhea: Polymenorrhea describes the condition of having too frequent periods. Periods occur more often than every 21 days, and ovulation usually does not occur during the cycle.
Causes and symptoms
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding often occurs when the endometrium, or lining of the uterus, is stimulated to grow by the hormone estrogen. When exposure to estrogen is extended, or not balanced by the presence of progesterone, the endometrium continues to grow until it outgrows its blood supply. Then it sloughs off, causing irregular bleeding. If the bleeding is heavy enough and frequent enough, anemia can result.
Menorrhagia is representative of DUB. It is caused by many conditions including some outside the reproductive system. Causes of menorrhagia include:
Dysmenorrhea is painful and difficult menstruation.
Pain may be severe enough to miss work or school, and prevent participation in normal activities.
Causes and Risk Factors
Risk factors for developing dysmenorrhea may include long menstrual periods, obesity, and early age at menarche, smoking, and use of alcohol.
Primary dysmenorrhea is believed to be caused by high levels of prostaglandins
Dyspareunia is painful sexual intercourse. The same term is used whether the pain results from a medical or a psychosocial problem.
Uterine fibroids are noncancerous (benign) tumors that develop in the uterus, most common pelvic tumor.
More common symptoms of uterine fibroids are:
Galactorrhea is the secretion of breast milk in women who are not breastfeeding an infant.
The primary symptom of galactorrhea is the discharge of milky fluid from both breasts. In women, galactorrhea may be associated with infertility, menstrual cycle irregularities, hot flushes, or amenorrhea
It is a thick, whitish or yellowish vaginal discharge.
Heavy menstrual bleeding during their periods, called menorrhagia
Cause and Risk Factor
It is often caused by a failure to ovulate, which leads to a deficiency of progesterone. Without progesterone, the uterine lining becomes unstable and periods tend to be longer and unpredictable. Toxins in the bloodstream tend to settle in the endrometrial tissue. When this tissue is shed each month, so are the toxins. Heavy periods may be a toxin-excretion technique.
A deficiency in vitamin A or iron, or hypothyroidism may also cause heavy periods. Painful heavy periods may be linked to endometriosis, fibroids, pelvic inflammatory disease, or the use of an intrauterine device (IUD). A single heavy period that takes place later in the cycle may be a miscarriage.
Unable to conceive or to get pragnant
Primary infertility describes couples who have never been able to become pregnant after at least 1 year of unprotected sex (intercourse).
Secondary infertility describes couples who have been pregnant at least once, but have not been able to become pregnant again.
A couple’s infertility may be due to female factors, male factors, or both:
Female infertility may be due to:
The period of bleeding in the cycle is called menstruation. When the cycle have problem that cause the disease condition like amenorrhoea, menorrhogea, etc.
Pregnancy, hormone imbalances, and illness, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, fibroids etc.
Sings and Symptoms:
Pain, dysmenorrhoea, nausea, vomiting, cramping etc.
PELVIC INFLAMETRY DISEASE (PID)
Pelvic inflammatory disease is a general term for infection of the uterus lining, fallopian tubes, or ovaries. It is also called Oophoritis; Salpingitis; Salpingo-oophoritis; Salpingo-peritonitis
Most cases of pelvic inflammatory disease are caused by bacteria that move from the vagina or cervix into the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, or pelvis.
The most common cause of PID is sexual contact without using a condom or other protection. This is called a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Chlamydia and gonorrhea are the two bacteria that cause most cases of PID.
The most common symptoms of PID include:
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES (STD)
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are caused by a group of infectious microorganisms that are transmitted mainly through sexual activity.
STDs can cause harmful, often irreversible, clinical complications, including reproductive health problems, fetal and perinatal health problems, and cancer, and they are also linked in a causal chain of events to the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
Causes and Risk Factors
More than twenty-five bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and yeasts are considered sexually transmissible. Bacterial STDs include those caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea), Treponema pallidum (syphilis), Haemophilus ducreyi (chancroid), and other common sexually transmitted organisms. Chlamydia and gonorrhea cause inflammatory reactions in the host. In women, these organisms can ascend into the upper reproductive tract where pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) can cause irreparable damage to the reproductive organs and result in infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. In its early stages, syphilis causes painless genital ulcers and other infectious lesions. Left untreated, syphilis moves through the body in stages, damaging many organs over time. Chancroid is associated with painful genital lesions. In pregnant women, acute bacterial STDs can cause potentially fatal congenital infections or perinatal complications, such as eye and lung infections in the newborn. Effective single-dose antimicrobials can cure chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and chancroid.
Viral STDs include the sexually transmitted viral infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection), herpes simplex virus type 2 (genital herpes), and human papillomavirus (HPV infection). Initial infections with these organisms may be asymptomatic or cause only mild symptoms. Treatable but not curable, viral STDs appear to be lifelong infections. HIV is the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Herpes causes periodic outbreaks of painful genital lesions. Some strains of HPV cause genital warts, and others are important risk factors for cervical dysplasia and invasive cervical cancer. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is another acute viral illness that can be transmitted through sexual activity. Most persons who acquire HBV infection recover and have no complications, but it can sometimes become a chronic health problem.
Trichomonas vaginalis (trichomoniasis) is a common protozoal STD, and Candida species (candidiasis) are sexually transmitted yeasts. Both are frequently associated with vaginal discharge.
A threatened miscarriage is a condition that suggests a miscarriage might take place before the 20th week of pregnancy.
Symptoms of a threatened miscarriage include:
Uterine prolapse is falling or sliding of the uterus from its normal position in the pelvic cavity into the vaginal canal.
Vaginal itching is a tingling or uneasy irritation of the skin of the vagina and the surrounding area (vulva). The itching may cause a desire to scratch the affected area.
Desire to scratch the affected area.
Causes and Risk Factors
Common causes of vaginal itching include: